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Burn Injury PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Mar 14, 2014

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  • Slide 1 - RCS 6080 Medical and Psychosocial Aspects of Rehabilitation Counseling Wound Healing, Burn Injuries & Plastic Surgery
  • Slide 2 - Wounds Any breach in the surface of the body or any tissue disruption produced by the application of energy Usually physical injury Abrasion, degloving injury Contusion, crush injury Incision, laceration
  • Slide 3 - Skin content refresher
  • Slide 4 - Wound Healing As wound heals: Fluid and cells drain from damaged tissue Exudate may be: Clear Bloody Pus-containing Proper wound healing: Cleanliness and care of lesion Proper circulation Good general health and nutrition
  • Slide 5 - Phases of healing Inflammatory Bleeding/clotting Migration of WBCs Cell swelling Reparative Laying down of collagen + migration of epith. cells New capillary loops Proliferation of fibroblastsstrands of collagen Consolodative reorientation +contraction of collagen collagen synthesisdegradation  vascularity
  • Slide 6 - Complications Hypertrophic scar = continued production of collagen Keloid = ….with extension into surrounding tissues Scar contracture
  • Slide 7 - Plastic surgery Scar Revision Laser resurfacing/dermabrasion Z-plasty Skin-grafting/flap surgery Tissue expansion
  • Slide 8 - Burn Injuries Statistics Annually, there are approximately 1.25 million people in the US who sustain burn injuries Of these, 5,500 do not survive and 51,000 require hospitalization Persons whose burn injuries require hospitalization have about a 50% chance of sustaining temporary or permanent disability The most common part of the body involved in burn injury is an upper extremity, followed by the head and neck
  • Slide 9 - Effects Burn injury causes destruction of tissue, usually the skin, from exposure to thermal extremes (either hot or cold), electricity, chemicals, and/or radiation The mucosa of the upper GI system (mouth, esophagus, stomach) can be burned with ingestion of chemicals The respiratory system can be damaged if hot gases, smoke, or toxic chemical fumes are inhaled Fat, muscle, bone, and peripheral nerves can be affected in electrical injuries or prolonged thermal or chemical exposure Skin damage can result in altered ability to sense pain, touch, and temperature
  • Slide 10 - Burn Classification - Cause The primary cause of burn injury is exposure to temperature extremes Heat injuries are more frequent than cold injuries Cold injuries almost exclusively result from frostbite Electrical and chemical injuries constitute 5-10% of burn injuries and are largely the result of occupational accidents
  • Slide 11 - Burn Classification - Depth Old terminology 1st degree: only the epidermis 2nd degree: epidermis and dermis, excluding all the dermal appendages 3rd degree: epidermis and all of the dermis 4th degree: epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissues (fat, muscle, bone, and peripheral nerves) New terminology Superficial: only the epidermis Superficial partial thickness: epidermis and dermis, excluding all the dermal appendages Deep partial thickness: epidermis and most of the dermis Full thickness: epidermis and all of the dermis
  • Slide 12 - Burn Classification - Depth
  • Slide 13 - Burn Classification - Extent Extent Burn injuries are also classified in terms of the percentage of the skin surface injured (TBSA) A relatively simple, but not totally accurate, method for determining the extent of injury is the rule of 9s The ABA classification system describes burn injuries as mild, moderate, or major
  • Slide 14 - Burn Classification – ExtentLund & Browder Lund and Browder More accurate Divides body into small areas Estimates proportion each area contributes Lund and Browder More accurate Divides body into small areas Estimates proportion each area contributes Takes more time and effort to calculate than Rule of Nines method
  • Slide 15 - Burn Treatment Respiratory care Administration of fluids Wound care (debridement) Pain control Plastic surgery (eg: skin grafts) Monitoring for complications Infections Cardiovascular Respiratory Massage & Physical therapy massage video Posttraumatic stress
  • Slide 16 - Pathophysiology of Burn Injury Pathophysiology refers to the complex chain of mechanisms that occur in the skin (local effects) and in other organ systems (systemic effects) when a burn injury occurs, as well as what happens as the skin regenerates and heals Local Effects Systematic Effects Skin Regeneration and Scarring Electrical Burns
  • Slide 17 - Burn Scars - Keloid
  • Slide 18 - Burn Scars - Hypertrophic
  • Slide 19 - Burn Scars - Contracture
  • Slide 20 - Burn Scars - Contracture
  • Slide 21 - Burn Scars - Nonraised
  • Slide 22 - Skin Graft Scars
  • Slide 23 - Functional Limitations Acute Limitations Patients may experience delirium that precludes their participation in treatment Edema, pain, bulky dressings, and immobilizing splints impair the person's ability to perform usual daily activities Sleep is frequently disrupted Anxiety and fear can be present Postdischarge Limitations The most frequent functional limitations involve scarring and joint contracture Other functional sequelae may result in permanent impairment
  • Slide 24 - Rehabilitation Burn Treatment Postdischarge Wound care continues If there is a risk of hypertrophic scarring, or it has already started, continuous pressure applied to the area will prevent its progress Garments need to be worn 20 hours per day for up to 1 year - uncomfortable, hot, and unattractive Contracture control continues through PT and/or OT Reconditioning and strengthening exercises begin Counseling is a possibility to work on emotional difficulties that have resulted from the burn injury Reconstructive surgery may be needed if the functional or cosmetic limitations are not responsive to rehabilitation treatment
  • Slide 25 - Vocational Limitations It should be emphasized that many of the functional limitations that have already been discussed are not overtly apparent If they are not recognized as valid, the RC could very easily conclude that a person is malingering, whining, or unmotivated Seriousness, etiology, and site of the burn injury can significantly affect return-to-work and how long it takes All of the studies cited in the text suggest that size, depth, and location are factors that influence time to return to work
  • Slide 26 - Additional Resources and Information from the Web Organizations American Burn Association (www.ameriburn.org) Burn Survivors Online (www.burnsurvivorsonline.com) Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors, Inc. (www.phoenix-society.org) JAN’s Webpage (www.jan.wvu.edu/media/burninj.html)
  • Slide 27 - Additional Resources and Information from the Web Burn Injury Rehabilitation Model Systems funded by NIDRR UW/BIRMS University of Washington / Harborview Medical Center (http://depts.washington.edu/uwnidrr/index.html) UT/SWMC University of Texas / Southwest Medical Center (www.swmed.edu/burntrauma) SBI-G Shriners Hospital for Children/ Burn Institute (www.shrinershq.org/shc/boston) JH/BM Johns Hopkins University/Bayview Medical Center (http://jhbmc.bayview.jhu.edu/BRBC/birms)
  • Slide 28 - Additional Resources and Information from the Web Related Articles from Burn Survivors Online The Impact of Reconstructive Surgery (www.burnsurvivorsonline.com/articles/Road_To_Restoration.asp) Child burns survivors report good quality of life (www.burnsurvivorsonline.com/articles/Quality_Of_Life.asp) Degrees of burns (www.burnsurvivorsonline.com/injuries/degree.asp)

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