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Slide 1 - Buprenorphine for Pain and for Addiction David A. Moltz, MD MAPP Clinical Conference April 30, 2010
Slide 2 - I. Addiction and Dependence
Slide 3 - DSM IVSubstance Dependence A maladaptive pattern of substance use, with 3 or more of: Tolerance Withdrawal Using larger amounts or for a longer time than intended Persistent desire or lack of control A great deal of time spent obtaining, using, recovering from Important activities given up Continued use in spite of negative consequences
Slide 4 - Addiction A chronic but treatable brain disease characterized by loss of control compulsive use use despite known harm relapse
Slide 5 - Addiction may occur with or without the presence of physical dependence. Physical dependence results from the body’s adaptation to a drug or medication and is defined by the presence of Tolerance and/or Withdrawal Dependence vs Addiction
Slide 6 - According to the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health : An estimated 4.4 million persons were current users of pain relievers for nonmedical purposes. New non-medical pain reliever use more than quadrupled from 1990 (628,000 new users) to 2000 (2.7 million new users). Opioid Use in a Household Survey Population SOURCE: SAMHSA, 2002.
Slide 7 - Neural circuitry of reward Present in all animals Produces pleasure for behaviors needed for survival: Eating Drinking Sex Nurturing
Slide 8 - Neural circuitry of reward Altruism activates the same circuitry Meeks TW, Jeste DV. The neurobiology of wisdom. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009;66(4):355-365
Slide 9 - II. Buprenorphine
Slide 10 - Definition of Terms Agonist Antagonist Affinity Intrinsic Activity Dissociation
Slide 11 - Buprenorphine Novel opioid with both agonist and antagonist properties Partial agonist at mu opioid receptor High affinity Low intrinsic activity Slow dissociation Antagonist at kappa receptor
Slide 12 - Buprenorphine High affinity for mu receptors  ability to compete with full mu agonists (such as heroin) and to block their effects. Low intrinsic activity  feeling of well-being without full opioid effects Very slow dissociation rate  prolonged therapeutic effects. Ceiling effect
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Slide 14 - Advantages of a Partial Agonist Lower abuse potential Lower level of physical dependence Relative safety if ingested in overdose quantities Weak opioid effects compared with methadone.
Slide 15 - Blockade Effect Buprenorphine has tight binding to and slow dissociation from opioid receptors. It produces a blockade effect at the mu-opioid receptor so that subsequently administered opioids do not produce their full euphoric effect. It appears to produce less physical dependence than a full opioid agonist (such as methadone), and it may be easier to discontinue at the end of medication treatment.
Slide 16 - Kosten T and O'Connor P. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1786-1795 Severity of Opioid-Withdrawal Symptoms after Abrupt Discontinuation of Equivalent Doses of Heroin, Buprenorphine, and Methadone
Slide 17 - III. Buprenorphine for Addiction
Slide 18 - Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 (DATA 2000) Expands treatment options to include both the general health care system and opioid treatment programs. Expands number of available treatment slots Allows opioid treatment in office settings Sets physician qualifications for prescribing the medication
Slide 19 - Blocks craving Blocks opiate withdrawal Does not produce a ‘high’ Blocks the effects of other opioids Milder withdrawal than methadone Stabilization of brain function Anti-depressant / anti-anxiety effect Beneficial Effects
Slide 20 - Significant enhancement in treatment retention and in the quality of participation Mainstreaming of opioid dependence treatment with office-based practice Greater safety Lower diversion risk Beneficial Effects
Slide 21 - Research Outcomes Buprenorphine is as effective as moderate doses of methadone. Partial agonist effects make it mildly reinforcing, encouraging medication compliance. After a year of buprenorphine + counseling, 75% of patients were retained in treatment compared to 0% in a placebo + counseling condition.
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Slide 23 - Cognitive Effects Available evidence in patients maintained on buprenorphine indicates no clinically significant disruption in cognitive and psychomotor performance. “Long-term use…does not impair driving ability.” Dagtekin O, et al. Assessing cognitive & psychomotor Performance under long-term treatment with transdermal buprenorphine in chronic noncancer pain patients. Anesth Analg 2007;105:1442-8
Slide 24 - Suboxone Buprenorphine + naloxone Partial agonist + pure antagonist Naloxone is only active intravenously Will precipitate withdrawal in opioid-dependent individuals Combination decreases diversion risk
Slide 25 - Addiction is not a disease of the synapses alone --Mark Publicker
Slide 26 - IV. Buprenorphine and Pain
Slide 27 - Pain Patients vs Addicted Persons
Slide 28 - Risk Factors Psychosocial Genetic Drug-related
Slide 29 - Pseudo-addiction “Drug-seeking behavior” Consequence of inadequate treatment of pain May be indistinguishable from addictive behavior
Slide 30 - Effectiveness in Pain 30-40 times more potent than morphine Ceiling effect  high safety profile Transdermal used extensively in Europe “…transdermal buprenorphine provides effective, sustained and dose-dependent analgesia, irrespective of age.” Pergolizzi J et al. Opioids & the management of chronic severe pain in the elderly: Consensus statement of an international expert panel. Pain Practice 2008;8(4):287-313
Slide 31 - Buprenorphine vs Morphine Chronic cancer pain More effective than morphine for physical pain, mental health and quality of life. Pace, MC, et al. Buprenorphine in long-term control of chronic pain in cancer patients. Frontiers in Bioscience 2007;(12):1291-1299
Slide 32 - Buprenorphine vs Methadone Post-partum, maintained on buprenorphine or methadone, with opioids or ibuprofen as needed Buprenorphine group decreased ibuprofen use over 5 days Methadone group increased ibuprofen use Jones HE, et al. Management of acute postpartum pain in patients maintained on methadone or buprenorphine during pregnancy. Am J Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2009; 35:151-56
Slide 33 - Managing Pain During Buprenorphine Maintenance Supplement with NSAIDS Temporarily replace buprenorphine with opiates Override buprenorphine with opiates Divide +/or increase buprenorphine dose Heit HA, Gourlay DL. Buprenorphine: New tricks with an old molecule for pain management. Clin J Pain 2008; 24(2):93-97
Slide 34 - Hyperalgesia
Slide 35 - Hyperalgesia A decrease in the threshold to elicit pain A state of nociceptive sensitization Hyperesthesia
Slide 36 - Allodynia The generation of pain in response to low-intensity stimuli or stimuli that are not normally painful.
Slide 37 - Mechanisms of Hyperalgesia NMDA (glutaminergic) Dynorphin (kappa receptor agonist) Peripheral, spinal and central sensitization “More complexity than clarity”
Slide 38 - Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia May be activation of hyperalgesic systems to counteract the analgesic effects of the opioids Ex: Morphine activates NMDA receptors and spinal dynorphin In withdrawal, the hyperalgesic system is unopposed
Slide 39 - Hyperalgesia and Tolerance May share mechanisms (eg,NMDA), but they are clinically different Hyperalgesia is increased sensitivity to pain Tolerance is decreased sensitivity to opioids Chang G, et al. Opioid tolerance & hyperalgesia. Med Clin N Am 2007;91;199-211
Slide 40 - OIH and Tolerance Difficult to differentiate clinically OIH diffuse, generalized pain, often different from pre-existing pain Stopping the opioid can differentiate Tolerance  more pain OIH  less pain
Slide 41 - Treating OIH Minimize opioid dose using adjuvant therapies Opioid rotation Methadone (NMDA antagonist) Buprenorphine
Slide 42 - Pain reduction after detoxification 23 patients not getting benefit from high-dose opioids No addictive behaviors 21 showed marked decrease in pain after detoxification After weaning, 63% decrease in pain with buprenorphine vs. 47% without Baron MJ, McDonald PW. Significant pain reduction in chronic pain patients after detoxification from high-dose opioids. J Opioid Management 2006;2(5):277-282
Slide 43 - Neuropathic pain Buprenorphine relieves allodynia from neuropathic pain Blocks hyperalgesia due to central hypersensitization Kappa antagonist (dynorphin) “Buprenorphine has been shown to have a pronounced antihyperalgesic effect.” Induru RR, Davis MP. Buprenorphine for neuropathic pain – Targeting hyperalgesia. Am J Hospice & Palliative Med 2009:26 (6);470-3 Likar R. Transdermal buprenorphine in the management of persistent pain – Safety aspects. Therapeutics & Clinical Risk Management 2006:2(1):115-125
Slide 44 - Buprenorphine and OIH “Resolution of OIH usually follows quickly during the maintenance phase with buprenorphine.” “Buprenorphine may be unique in its ability to treat chronic pain and possibly OIH” Silverman SM. Opioid induced hyperalgesia: Clinical implications for the pain practitioner.
Slide 45 - Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) Opioid dependence 42% with co-existent chronic pain Overall, 49% substantially improved after 3 mo of buprenorphine Of those with chronic pain, 53% substantially improved, and “many had significant improvement in their pain.” Weiss R. NIDA Blending Conference 4/22/10. www.NIDA.NIH.Gov
Slide 46 - Coexistent Addiction and Pain Buprenorphine is ideal Treats addiction Treats pain Relieves hyperalgesia
Slide 47 - Resources Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction. SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols. TIP 40. (For DATA training)