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Slide 1 - Bullying Author: Kathryn W. Enos “Parents and Educators working together to keep our students safe.” 1 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 2 - Learner Objectives Participants in this seminar will be able to: Define Bullying and its Different Forms List Risk Factors Related to Bullying Identify Positive Steps to Combat Bullying 2 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 3 - Our Agenda Identify What Bullying Is and Is Not List Warning Signs That Lead to Bullying Describe Positive Strategies That Create Healthy Schools 3 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 4 - Let’s Meet Henry…….. Henry is 11 years old and attends Main Elementary School which is located a few blocks from his home. He is in the sixth grade and is an average student. Henry has always been a bit shy and somewhat anxious around his peers. He just moved to this city 3 months ago and has not yet made any friends at the new school, though he does have a "best friend" at his old school. Henry is quite tall and thin for his age and is very self-conscious about his appearance. Over the past month, Henry has become increasingly withdrawn. Several weeks ago he came home with a tear in his favorite jacket. When his mother asked him what happened, he hurriedly said it was an accident. He goes straight to his room after school and shuts the door. His mother has noticed that he has become more irritable and is often tearful, but when she tries to talk to him about this, he tells her to go away. She is worried about him but, thinks this is a phase he's going through because they've just moved to a new city, etc. She also worries about making Henry too dependent on her if she gets too involved in his problems. You hear through others that Henry is being teased by his classmates several times a week. In particular, two children -a girl, Krissy, and a boy, Michael -make fun of the way he looks and have convinced most of his classmates to avoid him at lunch. (SAMHSA, 2004) 4 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 5 - Bullying…does it impact everyone? 5 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 6 - Bullying Let’s define it- A student is bullied when he or she is targeted, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more students. (The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004) 6 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 7 - An important point to remember: Bullying implies an imbalance in power or strength. The student who is bullied has difficulty defending himself. (The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004) 7 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 8 - Bullying – what it is and what it isn’t Bullying is not the same as conflict. Conflict involves antagonism of 2 or more people. Any two people can have a conflict. Bullying only occurs when there is a power imbalance. (The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004) (Stock.xchng, 2008) 8 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 9 - Bullying- how serious is it? Everyday in America, an estimated 160,000 children miss school for fear of being bullied (NASP, 2005) Bullying affects nearly one of out of every three US children grades 6-10 (SAMHSA, 2004) 9 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 10 - Making the Connection……. How Does This Fit Into Positive Behavior Support? 10 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 11 - Universal Supports are Implemented School-Wide Teachers and Administrators are working together to stop bullying Proactive and preventative measures are in place to keep all students safe Students at-risk or that require more intensive help are identified and supported Interventions and action-plans are data driven 11 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 12 - Tier 2: Strategic 5-10% of students Tier 1: Universal 80-90% of students Intensive Chronic Behavior Problems FBA - BIP Interagency Support Targeted Interventions for At-Risk students Check In, Check Out Increased cues and prompts Intensified instruction Small group & some individual interventions School Wide Behavior Systems Targets 100% of Students Clear expectations all settings -Teach behaviors Rules, routines, and physical Arrangements Effective Instruction Procedures to encourage expected behaviors and discourage infractions Policy of consistent administrator and staff implementation Data Analysis Tier 3: Intensive 1-5% of students SWPBS Framework Team oversees building process 12 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 13 - Is Bullying a major or minor violation? Both- depending on the extent, frequency, or type of bullying that a child experiences. Bullying can take the following forms: Physical Verbal Sexual Psychological Attacks Intimidation 13 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 14 - Where is bullying usually addressed? Bullying is most effectively counter-balanced when it is addressed in the natural context. Increases of adult supervision and responsiveness is key. (Stock.xchng, 2008) Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh 14
Slide 15 - Where does bullying usually occur? 48% Hallways/ Stairwells 32% In Class (with teacher absent) 29% In Gym Class/ Locker Rooms 27% In Class (with teacher present) 24% In Lunch Room 17% In Bathroom 15% On the Bus 16% On the Way To and From School (The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004) 15 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 16 - What Effects Does Bullying Have on the School Climate? Interferes with Student Learning. Creates a Climate of Fear and Disrespect. Students May Perceive a Lack of Control. The School Context Often Feels Like an Uncaring Environment. (The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004) 16 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 17 - What does the research tell us? Bullying is related to more serious forms of violence – both for the victims and also the child doing the bullying. Related acts include frequent fighting and the carrying of weapons. Bullying is also associated with a higher risk of substance abuse. (SAMHSA, 2004) 17 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 18 - How do we know if bullying is a “big” problem in our school? Utilize an anonymous questionnaire to determine the extent and type of bullying. Increase the time that you spend observing your students in a variety of settings. Make a list of your students and divide them into three categories- Bullies, Victims, and Bystanders. (Crothers, 2008) 18 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 19 - Are the teachers and the students on the same page? Many times there is a disconnect between teacher and student opinion on bullying. 70% of teachers believed that adults intervened almost all the time. 25% of students agreed. (The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004) (Stock.xchng, 2008 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh 19
Slide 20 - Related Problems Bullying is often a trigger to other social and criminal difficulties. A series of “Risk Factors” contribute to the onset and intensity of bullying behaviors. Bullying can be just one manifestation of other problems present in the home, at school, or in the community. Research shows that at 10 yr old exposed to six or more risk factors is 10x more likely to be violent by age 18. (SAMHSA, 2004) 20 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 21 - Examples of Risk Factors Frequent loss of temper Frequent physical fighting Extreme impulsiveness Easily frustrated Harmful acts to animals Name calling and abusive language Excessive feelings of rejection, isolation, or persecution (Stock.xchng 2008) 21 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 22 - Contributing Factors Substance or alcohol abuse by someone in the family Family violence Lack of warmth and involvement on the part of the parent Lack of setting clear limits for the child Lack of or inadequate parental supervision Child maltreatment, such as sexual or physical abuse (SAMHSA, 2004) 22 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 23 - When dealing with Bullying- what NOT to do. Do not tell or teach a child to fight back. Do not assume that it will work out on its own. Do not let students EVER think that bullying is OK. 23 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 24 - Bullying – what research tell us: Bullying is an intentional interaction between the victim and the child who is bullying. The pattern of response between a child who bullies and the victim becomes a predictable, partnership-based relationship. Bullying thrives in the elementary and middle school years and can have lifelong impacts on the victim. (Psychology Today, 1995) 24 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 25 - What works…..and can be positively done? 20 years of bullying research supports the effectiveness of Prevention Programs. No one prevention program works for each school because of their unique needs. Educators and administrators must work together to find a good fit for their school. (SAMHSA, 2004) 25 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 26 - Let’s take a look- Bullying Prevention at work…… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I2_eWtvuLhg (www.youtube.com – retrieved 4-11-08) 26 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 27 - Example prevention programs include: The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Bully Proofing Your School BullySafe USA The Don’t Laugh at Me Program (DLAM) (Stock.xchng, 2008) 27 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 28 - Implications for practice- positive steps that the teachers can take: Teachers and administrators need to recognize that they are the most effective deterrent to bullying. Successful reductions of bullying occur when school-wide preventive measures are in place. Active teachers can readily recognize bullying and better safeguard their students against it. (SAMHSA, 2004) 28 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 29 - What can you do? Assessing school needs and goals via an anonymous questionnaire. Form a bullying prevention committee. Increase supervision in areas that that are known to be prone to bullying. Develop school-wide rules for consistent consequences violations of bullying. Develop a system to reinforce positive behaviors. (SAMHSA., 2004) 29 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 30 - Putting it all together…. Please refer to the attached study guide for further clarification on today’s topics. (Stock.xchng, 2008) 30 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 31 - Where you can get help: The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program http://www.clemson.edu/olweus/ Bully Proofing Your School http://www.creatingcaringcommunities.org/ BullySafe USA http://www.bullysafeusa.com/store/ 31 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 32 - Another look at a case study: A teacher has approached you because she is worried about the behavior of a child in your class. Normally, this child is quiet and easy to get along with, but lately she has been angry and aggressive. You know this girl and are her friend. You have recently heard that someone has created a Web site that has listed all kinds of nasty things about her (SAMHSA, 2004) 32 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 33 - Let’s talk about it…… Discussion Questions What would you say to the teacher? Who is the bully? Why? What would you say to the student? What steps, if any, could you take to rectify this situation? (SAMHSA, 2004) 33 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 34 - References Big Bad Bully. (1995). Psychology Today. WWW.Psychologytoday.com Retrieved 4-5-08 Crothers,L. M., Kolbert, J. B., (2008) Tackling a Problematic Behavior ManagementIssue: Teachers’ Intervention in Childhood Bullying Problems, Intervention In School and Clinic, 43, 132-139. Ellis, A.A., Shute, R. (2007) Teacher Responses to Bullying in Relation to Moral Orientation and Seriousness of Bullying, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 649-663. 34 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 35 - References Frisen,A., Jonsson, A.K., Persson, C. (2007) Adolescents’ Perception Of Bullying: Who Is The Victim? Who Is The Bully? What Can Be Done To Stop Bullying? , ADOLESCENCE, 42, 749-761. Green, G. (2005) Bullying: A Concern for Survival. Education, 128, 333- 336. SAMHSA, (2004) Retrieved 4-10-08 From http://pathwayscourses.samhsa.gov/bully/ bully_6_pg4.htm StockXchng, (2008) Retrieved 4-22-08 From http://www.stock.xchng.com       35 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh
Slide 36 - Contact Information Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh Email- KWE1@pitt.edu 36 Copyright 2008 - Kathryn W. Enos University of Pittsburgh