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Breast Cancer-Taking a Closer Look at BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 PowerPoint Presentation

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  • Slide 1 - Breast Cancer:Taking a Closer Look at BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 Courtney Morgan Sacramento State University, California Biology 184, Humboldt Hall 220
  • Slide 2 - What We Will Discuss Different Types Of Breast Cancer Symptoms Of Breast Cancer Causes Of Breast Cancer What Are The BRCA Genes and How Do They Increase Your Risk Of Breast Cancer? What Can You Do To Catch Breast Cancer Early? What Are Your Treatment Options If You Do Develop Breast Cancer?
  • Slide 3 - Different Types of Breast Cancer Invasive (infiltrating) Ductal carcinoma (IDC): most common breast cancer starts in a milk passage or duct, breaks through duct wall, invades breast tissue Lobular carcinoma (ILC): starts in the milk glands or lobules can spread to other parts of the body Noninvasive Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): most common noninvasive confined to the ducts Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS): begins in the milk-making glands does not go through the wall of the lobules . (myhealth.gov, 2008)
  • Slide 4 - Symptoms of Breast Cancer Swelling of all or part of the breast Skin irritation or dimpling Breast pain Nipple pain or nipple turning inward Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple breast skin Nipple discharge other than breast milk A lump in the underarm area May be asymptomatic (Breastcancer.org, 2008)
  • Slide 5 - Causes of Breast Cancer Breast cancers are caused by abnormal genes Abnormal genes can be inherited Breast cancers diagnosed at a young age can be due to inherited mutated genes (Wooster, 1994) Normal genes can acquire mutations (~90% of breast cancers) Mutagens/Toxic exposure DNA replication errors Hormonal influences Diet Example: BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 – tumor suppressor genes (breastcancer.org, 2008) (breastcancer.org, 2008)
  • Slide 6 - What Are the BRCA Genes and How Do They Increase Your Risk of Breast Cancer? BRCA 1 Located on chromosome 17q21 >1,000 mutations associated with this gene and breast cancer (Genetics Home Reference, 2007) BRCA 2 Located on chromosome 13q12.3 > 800 mutations identified that can lead to breast cancer Mutations are usually caused by small insertions and deletions (Genetics Home Reference, 2007) (Genetics Home Reference, 2007)
  • Slide 7 - What Are the BRCA Genes and How Do They Increase Your Risk of Breast Cancer? BRCA (BReast CAncer) 1 and 2 are tumor suppressor genes (breastcancer.org, 2008) Function: To keep cells from growing out of control Involved in DNA damage-response pathway (DNA repair) (breastcancer.org, 2008) We all have 2 copies of these genes in most cells of our bodies (Yes, even men!!!) (breastcancer.org, 2008) Mutations Usually result in a truncated protein Result in ineffective DNA repair (Genetics Home Reference, 2007) Mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern (NCBI, 2003) Only one mutated gene needs to be passed to you for you to inherit the disease (Medline Plus, 2009) If a mutated copy of one of these genes is inherited Leads to higher risk of second copy becoming mutated, which could cause breast cancer If one good copy is present, it will still be able to stop abnormal cell growth Cancer develops when second copy is or becomes dysfunctional (NCBI, 2003)
  • Slide 8 - What Can You Do to Catch Breast Cancer Early? Self Exam Feel for lumps in your armpits and breasts Look for any of the signs stated previously Should be done monthly Mammograms Yearly If you are over 40 years of age If you have a family history of breast cancer, you should start getting mammograms at the age of 30 Genetic Testing If you have a history of breast cancer in your family (breastcancer.org, 2009) (Myhealth.gov, 2008)
  • Slide 9 - What Are Your Treatment Options If You Do Develop Breast Cancer? Surgery Lumpectomy Mastectomy Lymph node dissection Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Hormonal Therapy Complementary and Holistic Medicines Acupuncture Meditation Yoga (breastcancer.org, 2009)
  • Slide 10 - Works Cited "Autosomal dominant". National Library of Medicine. 20 November 2009 . "BRCA 1". U.S. National Library of Medicine. 20 November 2009 . "BRCA 2". U.S. National Library of Medicine. 20 November 2009 . "Breast Cancer". Ministry of Health Malaysia. 20 November 2009 . "Genetic Basis of Cancer Syndromes". BC Decker, Inc.. 20 November 2009 . "Genetics and Breast Cancer Risk". Breastcancer.org. 20 November 2009 . "Genetic Testing". Breastcancer.org. 20 November 2009 . "How Do Abnormal Genes Cause Cancer?". Breastcancer.org. 20 November 2009 . "Inflammatory breast cancer". Georgia Department of Community Health. 20 November 2009 . "Symptoms & Diagnosis". Breastcancer.org. 20 November 2009 . "Symptoms of Breast Cancer". Breastcancer.org. 20 November 2009 . "Treatment & Side Effects". Breastcancer.org. 20 November 2009 . Wooster, Richard, Susan L. Neuhausen, Jonathan Mangion, Yvette Quirk, Deborah Ford, Nadine Collins, Kim Nguyen, Sheila Seal, Thao Tran, Diane Averill, Patty Fields, Gill Marshall, Steven Narod, Gilbert M. Lenoir, Henry Lynch, Jean Feunteun, Peter Devilee, Cees J. Cornelisse, Fred H. Menko, Peter A. Daly, Wilma Ormiston, Ross McManus, Carol Pye, Cathryn M. Lewis, Lisa A. Cannon-Albright, Julian Peto, Bruce A.J. Ponder, Mark H. Skolnick, Douglas F. Easton, David E. Goldgar, and Michael R. Stratton. "Localization of a Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene, BRCA2, to Chromosome 13q12-13." Science 265.5181 (1994): 2088-090. JSTOR. Web. 19 Sept. 2009.

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