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Breast cancer subtypes (Newman)

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Slide 1 - BREAST CANCER SUBTYPES:Association Between Aggressive Breast Cancer Subtypes and African Ancestry Lisa A. Newman, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.S. Professor of Surgery Director, Breast Care Center University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI
Slide 2 - Goals of Breast Cancer Treatment Local/Regional Treatment: to control/eliminate disease in breast and regional lymph nodes Surgery Radiation Therapy Systemic Treatment: to control/eliminate disease in distant organs Chemotherapy Endocrine/Hormonal Therapy Other Targeted Therapy (e.g. Herceptin)
Slide 3 - Breast Cancer Treatment All breast cancer patients are at risk for having metastatic disease in distant organs (liver, lungs, bones, etc) Early-stage breast cancer pts more likely to have microscopic metastases (microscopic, invisible disease; micrometastases) Highest risk in pts with bulky, locally-advanced, node-positive breast cancer Systemic therapy can control distant organ metastases Staging information (TNM) provides clues regarding risk of micrometastatic disease Systemic therapy most likely to be successful if: Micrometastatic burden is low (early-stage disease) Systemic therapy is TARGETED to individual tumor biology
Slide 4 - Systemic Therapy for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy “generic” systemic therapy: kills any rapidly-dividing cells in the body Endocrine/Hormonally-active therapy Tamoxifen; Aromatase Inhibitors Target ER-positive and/or PR-positive breast cancer cells Herceptin/Trastuzamab Targets HER2/neu-positive breast cancer
Slide 5 - Systemic Therapy for Breast Cancer Appropriate systemic therapy can improve breast cancer survival by 20-30% Preoperative (neoadjuvant) systemic therapy can convert locally-advanced/inoperable breast cancer to resectable disease can improve ease of surgery for any bulky cancer Success of systemic therapy: COMPLETELY dependent upon having information regarding tumor markers (ER, PR, and HER2/neu)
Slide 6 - What are breast cancer subtypes? What is the relationship between breast cancer subtypes and systemic therapy for breast cancer?
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Slide 8 - “Basal-like” breast cancer Gene expression profile Most tightly clustered subgroup in gene expression arrays CK 5/6 and 17 expression P53 mutations EGFR overexpression Mostly “triple negative” Morphology High grade Mainly ductal or medullary High mitotic count Scant stroma Central necrosis Pushing border Lymphocytic infiltrate Apoptotic figures BRCA1 connection Gene expression similar Morphology similar
Slide 9 - Sorlie et al. PNAS 2003 ER++, PR++, G1,2 HER2 ISH pos “triple neg,” CK5/6+
Slide 10 - Triple-Positive Breast Cancer Triple-Negative Breast Cancer H&E ER-Neg PR-Neg HER2/neu-Neg ER-Pos PR-Pos HER2/neu-Pos H&E
Slide 11 - Relevance of “Triple-Negative” Breast Cancer Tumors that do not express the ER, PR, and HER2/neu markers are more likely to be basal-subtype tumors Inherently aggressive biologic behavior Triple-negativity used as a surrogate for basal subtype Tumors that do not express the ER, PR, and HER2/neu markers have fewer systemic therapy options Endocrine/hormonal therapy will be ineffective Herceptin therapy will be ineffective Chemotherapy IS effective
Slide 12 - BREAST CANCER SUBTYPES:Association Between Aggressive Breast Cancer Subtypes and African Ancestry Association initially suggested by observations of disparities in the breast cancer burden of African Americans and White/European Americans Most available data therefore based upon studies of African American breast cancer pts and ER status
Slide 13 - BREAST CANCER IN AFRICAN AMERICANS Overall lower lifetime incidence Higher mortality More advanced stage distribution Younger age distribution Increased frequency of adverse prognostic tumor features Higher incidence of male breast cancer
Slide 14 - NCDB: Frequency of ER-Negative Tumors by Age, Stage, and Income 1998; N=170K; approximately 10% AA
Slide 15 - Hance, K. W. et al. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2005 97:966-975 Frequency of ER-Neg Breast Cancer NOT Explained by Stage Distribution: Age-specific incidence rates by ER status and race
Slide 16 - Frequency of ER-Negative Breast Cancer NOT Explained by Poverty: International Data on SES and ER Status Glasgow, Scotland (Thomson et al, J Epi & Comm Health, 2001) 35% ER-negative for affluent women compared to 52% ER-negative for impoverished women ER status missing for one-third of cases Glasgow, Scotland (Carnon et al, BMJ 1994) 51% ER-negative for affluent women compared to 52% ER-negative for impoverished women Sweden National Health Care System (Halmin et al Acta Oncologica, 2008) 37% ER-negative; no differences by SES London, England (Bowen et al Br J Cancer, 2008) 34% ER-neg for British Black women compared to 25% ER-neg for British White women; results unchanged by SES stratification
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Slide 18 - High-Risk Breast Cancer and African Ancestry Parallels between hereditary breast cancer and breast cancer in women with African ancestry younger age distribution increased prevalence of ER-neg, aneuploid tumors higher risk of male breast cancer Is African ancestry associated with a heritable marker for high-risk breast cancer subtypes? Unique opportunity to gain insights regarding etiology of breast cancer disparities and the pathogenesis of triple-negative breast cancer
Slide 19 - Breast Cancer in African American, Sub-Saharan African, and White American Women
Slide 20 - Research Project: KATH-UM International Breast Cancer Registry To systematically evaluate African ancestry as a risk factor for ER/triple-negative, early onset breast cancer Multicenter/international study African Americans (UM; Henry Ford Hospital) White Americans (UM; Henry Ford Hospital) Ghanaians (Komfo Anoyke Teaching Hospital) Document correlation between quantified extent of ancestry (via genotyping) and risk for ER-negative/triple-negative breast cancer (via tumor studies)
Slide 21 - Preliminary Results(in press, Cancer)
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Slide 23 - Patterns Among Locally-Advanced, Grade 3 Tumors
Slide 24 - Other African Datasets Huo et al (Olopade) JCO 2009 378 breast cancers from Nigeria and Senegal 1996-2007 Mean age 45 yrs 76% ER-negative 73% triple-negative Bird et al Ann Surg Onc 2008 120 breast cancers from Kenya 2001-2007 Median age 47 yrs 76% ER-negative 44% triple-negative (subset of 34 tumors)
Slide 25 - Breast Cancer Stem Cells
Slide 26 - ALDH1 as a Breast Cancer Stem Cell Marker Article ALDH1 Is a Marker of Normal and Malignant Human Mammary Stem Cells and a Predictor of Poor Clinical Outcome Christophe Ginestier, Max S. Wicha and Gabriela Dontu, et al University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, France November 2007, Pages 555-567
Slide 27 - ALDH-1 Staining by Race/Ethnicity Ghanaian Cases: 20/23 (87%) University of Michigan White American cases: 24/146 (19%) French/European cases: 102/345 (30%) White American/European ER-negative cases 39/80 (50%)
Slide 28 - ALDH1/Breast CA Stem Cell Marker: Ghanaian Breast Cancer Case
Slide 29 - THANK YOU!!!!!