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Slide 1 - Breast Cancer – A PowerPoint for Teachers ISAT 351 – Project Breast Cancer Lesson Jennifer Williams
Slide 2 - Introduction This PowerPoint is a resource that will help educate teachers on the subject of Breast Cancer. After viewing this presentation and studying this presentation, teachers will be familiar with enough information that they will be able to instruct their students on the topic of Breast Cancer.
Slide 3 - Breast Cancer Statistics Every three minutes, a woman in the United States is diagnosed with breast cancer. Every twelve minutes a woman dies from breast cancer. This year, approximately 182,800 women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Approximately 40,800 women will die from breast cancer. No one dies of cancer in the breast, only of cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
Slide 4 - What exactly is Breast Cancer?
Slide 5 - What is Cancer? Cancer involves the abnormal multiplication and spread of cells in the body. It is usually caused by mutations in somatic cell genes that regulate cell growth. Almost every tissue in the body can produce cancer; some even generate many different types of cancer. However, cancer mostly occurs in cells that divide and reproduce more than other cells.
Slide 6 - More on Cancer Typical cells in the body multiply only when they are told to do so by genes or other cells in their surrounding area. Cancer cells disregard the usual control on production and follow their own internal plan for reproduction. Cancer cells also have the ability to migrate from one site in the body where they began and invade other tissues to form tumors at other sites inside the body. This is called metastasis. The change of a cell into cancer comes about through the accumulation of mutations in the specific classes of genes within it or other outside environmental factors.
Slide 7 - Breast Cancer Breast Cancer occurs when a mutation takes place in the cells that line the lobules that manufacture milk or more commonly in the ducts that carry it to the nipple. The area around the center of the breast is where most cancers occur. It is fairly rare for cancers to form in the fat or non-glandular tissues of the breast.
Slide 8 - Diagram of the Breast The breast is a glandular organ. It is made up of a network of mammary ducts. Each breast has about 15-20 mammary ducts that lead to lobes that are made up of lobules. The lobules contain cells that secrete milk that are stimulated by estrogen and progesterone which are ovarian hormones.
Slide 9 - How does someone get Breast Cancer?
Slide 10 - The causes of breast cancer are not completely understood and are not set in stone. But certain women are more susceptible of developing one form of cancer. This is a picture of breast cancer cells.
Slide 11 - Causes Inherited Risk Factors Environmental Factors
Slide 12 - Inherited Breast Cancer Between 5-10% of breast cancer is inherited from a family member. This means that the majority of women that are diagnosed with breast cancer do not have the genetic mutation. Research has suggested women who are diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age (less than 45) usually inherited. This figure shows that one out of every 10 women will obtain breast cancer by inheriting a gene from a family member.
Slide 13 - Inherited Genes BRCA1 (Breast Cancer 1) BRCA2 (Breast Cancer 2) TP53 gene ATM gene
Slide 14 - BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 Both of these genes code for DNA repair. If a woman has a mutation on either one of these genes, the risk of her getting breast cancer increases from 10% to 80% in her lifetime. Mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 account for 40-50% of all cases of inherited breast cancer. These genes are also associated with ovarian cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. These genes can be inherited either from the mother or the father.
Slide 15 - Other Inherited Genes that cause Cancer TP53 gene This gene codes for the tumor suppressor protein p53. Mutations of this gene cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which is a condition that is associated with early onset breast cancer. ATM gene Females with one defective copy of the ATM gene and one normal copy of the gene are at increased risk for breast cancer.
Slide 16 - Risk Factors that cause Breast Cancer Factors that Cannot be Prevented Gender Aging Genetic Risk Factors (inherited) Family History Personal History Race Menstrual Cycle Estrogen Lifestyle Risks Oral Contraceptive Use Not Having Children Hormone Replacement Therapy Not Breast Feeding Alcohol Use Obesity High Fat Diets Physical Inactivity Smoking
Slide 17 - Environmental Factors Exposure to Estrogen Radiation Electromagnetic Fields Xenoestrogens Exposure to Chemicals This is a Breast Cancer Cell
Slide 18 - Types of Breast Cancer
Slide 19 - In Situ Breast Cancer In Situ Breast Cancer remains within the ducts or lobules of the breasts. This type of cancer is only detected by mammograms – not by a physical examination. If the cancer is in the duct it is called Ductal Carcinoma in situ. If the cancer is in the lobule of the breast, it is called Lobular Carcinoma in situ. This type of cancer is most common among pre-menopausal women. There is also a slight chance that if a woman has this type of cancer she is at risk that it would occur in the other.
Slide 20 - Infiltrating Breast Cancer Breast cancer is considered infiltrating or invasive if the cancer cells have penetrated the membrane that surrounds a duct or lobule. This type of cancer forms a lump that can eventually be felt by a physical examination. Breast cancer cells cross the lining of the milk duct or lobule, and begin to invade adjacent tissues. This type of cancer is called "infiltrating cancer." In this picture, you can see the breast cancer cells invading the milk duct.
Slide 21 - More on Infiltrating Breast Cancer Infiltrating cancer of the duct Called “Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma” It is the most common type of breast cancer. Cancer cells that are invading the fatty tissue around the duct, they stimulate the growth of non-cancerous scar like tissue that surrounds the cancer making it easier to spot. Infiltrating cancer of the lobules Called “Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma” Occurs when cells stream out in a single file into the surrounding breast tissue. This type of cancer is harder to detect on a mammogram because there is no fibrous growth.
Slide 22 - Other Types of Breast Cancer Cystosarcoma Phyllodes Inflammatory Cancer Accounts for less than one percent of all breast cancers and looks as though the breast is infected. Breast Cancer During Pregnancy Paget’s Disease
Slide 23 - Clinical Stages of Breast Cancer
Slide 24 - Clinical Staging is determined by considering the size of the original tumor (T), the lymph nodes (L), and metastasis (M). This is called the TNM Criteria.
Slide 25 - TNM Criteria T = Primary Tumor Tis = carcinoma in situ T1 = less than 2 cm in diameter T2 = between 2 and 5 cm in diameter T3 = more than 5 cm in diameter T4 = any size, but extends to the skin or chest wall N = Regional Lymph nodes N0 = no regional node involvement N1 = metastasis to movable same side axillary nodes N2 = metastasis to fixed same side axillary nodes N3 = metastasis to same side internal mammary nodes M = Distant Metastasis M0 = no distant metastasis M1 = distant metastasis
Slide 26 - Clinical Staging Table taken from How to Prevent Breast Cancer, page 37.
Slide 27 - The Effect of Tumor Size on Survival Survival Tumor Size As tumor size increases, the chance of survival decreases.
Slide 28 - How do you detect Breast Cancer?
Slide 29 - Breast Self Examination Here is a link that will show exactly how to perform a breast self examination. - bse2 This test should be performed once every month.
Slide 30 - Mammogram A Mammogram is a X-ray of the breast that takes pictures of the fat, fibrous tissues, ducts, lobes, and blood vessels. When should a mammogram be performed? If a lump has been found during self-examination or by a physician Younger women who have a strong history of breast cancer in their family All women over forty Women who have had previous diagnosis of breast cancer.
Slide 31 - Other Forms of Detection Sonogram Thermography Transillumination Xeromammograpy Cat Scan MRI Biopsy
Slide 32 - Treatments of Breast Cancer There is no “cure” for breast cancer.
Slide 33 - Treatment of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Drugs Surgery
Slide 34 - Chemotherapy Chemotherapy works by destroying cells that are dividing and multiplying all the time. Chemotherapy is used for treatment of breast cancer because there is a possibility of the cancer to spread to other parts of the body. Chemotherapy works better for premenopausal women. Systemic chemotherapy can prevent the spread of cancer. Chemotherapy drugs are administered intravenously.
Slide 35 - Radiation Radiation, at high energy levels, has the ability to destroy what is in its path, including normal and abnormal cells Fortunately new technologies have found a way to battle cancer with radiation. Radiation usually destroys rapidly dividing cancerous cells. Normal cells have the ability to repair themselves.
Slide 36 - Drugs Usually drugs used to battle cancer are taken while receiving some other type of treatment. Most of the time as well, three or four drugs are used at the same time, so there is an overlapping effectiveness. There are four drugs that are commonly used to battle breast cancer.
Slide 37 - Types of Drugs used to Treat Breast Cancer Alkylating Agents Cytoxan These types of drugs usually damage the programs that control the growth in tumor cells. Antimetabolites Methotrexate & 5-fluorouracil This type of drug interferes with the making of nucleotides, which are the substances that make up DNA. Natural Products Vincristine (Oncovin and vinblastine (Velban) come from the periwinkle plant. These drugs interfere with cell structure as well as cell division. Hormones Prednisone Hormones affect the growth of hormones and usually enhances the effects of other cytotoxic drugs.
Slide 38 - Surgery Mastectomy A mastectomy is the surgical removal of the breast, non-protruding breast tissue, the lymph nodes in the armpits and some pectoral muscle. Breast reconstruction surgery may be conducted after the removal of the breast. Lumpectomy In this surgical procedure, the breast is conserved and the tumor is removed. Radiation commonly follows a lumpectomy to try to rid the body of any other cancerous cells.
Slide 39 - Psychological Impacts of Breast Cancer
Slide 40 - What do Patients Go Through After Diagnosis? Depression Anxiety Hostility Fear Changes in life patterns due to discomfort and pain Marital/sexual disruptions Reduction of activities Panic Guilt Difficulty adapting to illness Overwhelmed Disappointment
Slide 41 - Reoccurrences of Breast Cancer Reoccurrences Personal Responsibility Loss of Hope Denial Grief Therapies Group Therapies Single session groups Time limited groups Long Term groups Traditional Single session with psychologists
Slide 42 - Prevention
Slide 43 - Fat Research shows that dietary fat should be 20% or less in order to gain meaningful protection against cancer. Fat cells make estrogen, which promotes breast cancer. Diets high in fat are associated with the increasing breast density in mammograms, which makes interpretation more difficult.
Slide 44 - Fiber Fiber provides protection against breast cancer because it has a mechanism that decreases the amount of estrogen in the body. The amount of fiber in the diet affects the activities of intestinal bacteria, which affects the amount of reabsorbed estrogens.
Slide 45 - Antioxidant Nutrients Antioxidants are important in fighting breast cancer because they can disarm cancer-causing substances called free radicals. Vitamin C Vitamin E Beta-carotene Vitamin A Selenium
Slide 46 - Other Preventative Measures Early Detection!!!! Exercise No Smoking!! Good Diet
Slide 47 - Prevention Table This table shows the recommendations and benefits of these recommendations by age to prevent breast cancer from occurring. Recommendations for Women of Different Ages.
Slide 48 - Reoccurring Breast Cancer? An article from the National Cancer Institutes states a reason why breast cancer reoccurs in some women because physicians are not performing enough follow-up testing for early-stage breast cancer. It stated that 85% of all metastatic cancer was detected by history and physical exams; therefore physicians should see patients that are in remission from breast cancer every 3 to 4 months. This is a good example of early detection is the best way to prevent cancer from reoccurring!!! Pazdur, Richard. “Response Rates, Survival, and Chemotherapy Trials.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 92 (2000): 1552-1553
Slide 49 - New Technologies
Slide 50 - New Probe The Smart Probe, created by BioLuminate, Inc. was designed for use after a mammogram identifies a suspected area of concern. It consists of a small needle that is inserted into the breast tissue that looks for multiple known indicators of breast cancer. Advantages: it gathers information the moment it is inserted and provides instantaneous results. It is about 80% accurate and more cost effective.
Slide 51 - New Test that Differentiates between Breast Cancer Types This new test created by the National Institute of Health can distinguish between hereditary and sporadic forms of breast cancer. This new technique uses a DNA chip called a microarray that contains fluorescent labels. These labels light up revealing the higher activity level of the gene.
Slide 52 - Activities WebPages Steven Dunn’s Cancer Guide The National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Calculators Breast Health Quiz