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Slide 1 - Chapter 14The Central Nervous System Overview of the brain Meninges, ventricles, cerebrospinal fluid & blood supply Hindbrain and midbrain Forebrain Higher brain functions The cranial nerves
Slide 2 - Brain – Directional Terms and Landmarks Rostral (toward the forehead) - Caudal (toward the cord) Major parts of the brain - cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem cerebrum is 83% of brain volume; cerebellum contains 50% of the neurons brain weighs 3 to 3.5 pounds
Slide 3 - Brain Longitudinal fissure separates 2 cerebral hemispheres. gyri are the folds and sulci the grooves surface layer of gray matter is called cortex; deeper masses of gray matter are called nuclei bundles of axons (white matter) are called tracts
Slide 4 - Lateral View of the Brain
Slide 5 - Inferior View of the Brain
Slide 6 - Median Section of the Brain
Slide 7 - Photo of Sagittal Section of Brain
Slide 8 - Embryonic Development Nervous system develops from ectoderm by 3rd week, neural plate becomes a groove with neural folds along each side by 4th week, neural folds join to form neural tube lumen of the neural tube develops into central canal of spinal cord & ventricles of the brain cells along the margin of the neural groove is called the neural crest develop into sensory and sympathetic neurons & schwann cells by 4th week, neural tube exhibits 3 anterior dilations
Slide 9 - Brain Development 4th week forebrain midbrain hindbrain 5th week telencephalon diencephalon mesencephalon metencephalon myelencephalon
Slide 10 - Meninges Dura mater -- outermost, tough membrane outer periosteal layer against bone where separated from inner meningeal layer forms dural venous sinuses draining blood from brain supportive structures formed by dura mater falx cerebri, falx cerebelli and tentorium cerebelli epidural space filled with fat in lower back region epidural anaesthesia during childbirth Arachnoid mater is spider web filamentous layer Pia mater is a thin vascular layer adherent to contours of brain
Slide 11 - Cranial Meninges
Slide 12 - Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges Serious disease of infancy and childhood between 3 months and 2 years of age Bacterial and virus invasion of the CNS by way of the nose and throat pia mater and arachnoid are most likely to be affected Signs include high fever, stiff neck, drowsiness and intense headache and may progress to coma Diagnose by examining the CSF
Slide 13 - Brain Ventricles
Slide 14 - Ventricles of the Brain
Slide 15 - Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid Internal chambers within the CNS lateral ventricles found inside cerebral hemispheres third ventricle is single vertical space under corpus callosum cerebral aqueduct runs through midbrain fourth ventricle is small chamber between pons & cerebellum central canal runs down through spinal cord Lined with ependymal cells and containing choroid plexus of capillaries that produce CSF
Slide 16 - Cerebrospinal Fluid Clear liquid fills ventricles and canals & bathes its external surface (in subarachnoid space) Brain produces & absorbs about 500 ml/day filtration of blood through choroid plexus has more Na+ & Cl- but less K+ & Ca+2 than plasma Functions buoyancy -- floats brain so it neutrally buoyant protection -- cushions from hitting inside of skull chemical stability -- rinses away wastes Escapes from 4th ventricle to surround the brain Absorbed by arachnoid villi into venous sinus
Slide 17 - Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid
Slide 18 - Blood-Brain and Blood-CSF Barriers Blood-brain barrier is tightly joined endothelium permeable to lipid-soluble materials (alcohol, O2, CO2, nicotine and anesthetics) circumventricular organs in 3rd & 4th ventricles at breaks in the barrier where blood has direct access monitoring of glucose, pH, osmolarity & other variations allows route for HIV virus to invade the brain Blood-CSF barrier at choroid plexus is ependymal cells joined by tight junctions
Slide 19 - Hindbrain: Medulla Oblongata 3 cm extension of spinal cord Ascending & descending nerve tracts Nuclei of sensory & motor cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII) Cardiac center adjusts rate & force of heart beat Vasomotor center adjusts blood vessel diameter Respiratory centers control rate & depth of breathing Reflex centers for coughing, sneezing, gagging, swallowing, vomiting, salivation, sweating, movements of tongue & head Pyramids and olive visible on surface
Slide 20 - Medulla and Pons Olive
Slide 21 - Dorsolateral View of Brainstem
Slide 22 - Pons Bulge in the brainstem, rostral to the medulla Ascending sensory tracts Descending motor tracts Pathways in & out of cerebellum Nuclei concerned with sleep, hearing, balance, taste, eye movements, facial expression, facial sensation, respiration, swallowing, bladder control & posture cranial nerves V, VI, VII, and VIII
Slide 23 - Cerebellum Right & left hemispheres connected by vermis Parallel surface folds called folia are gray matter all of output comes from deep gray nuclei large cells in single layer in cortex are purkinje cells synapse on deep nuclei
Slide 24 - Cerebellum Connected to brainstem by cerebellar peduncles White matter (arbor vitae) visible in sagittal section Sits atop the 4th ventricle
Slide 25 - Mesencephalon Central aqueduct CN III and IV eye movement Cerebral peduncles hold corticospinal tract Tegmentum connects to cerebellum & helps control fine movements through red nucleus Substantia nigra sends inhibitory signals to basal ganglia & thalamus (degeneration leads to tremors and Parkinson disease) Midbrain, Cross Section
Slide 26 - Superior & Inferior Colliculus Tectum (4 nuclei) called corpora quadrigemina superior colliculus (tracking moving objects ) inferior colliculus (reflex turning of head to sound)
Slide 27 - Reticular Activating System Clusters of gray matter scattered throughout pons, midbrain & medulla Regulate balance & posture relaying information from eyes & ears to cerebellum gaze centers allow you to track moving object Includes cardiac & vasomotor centers Origin of descending analgesic pathways Regulates sleep & conscious attention injury leads to irreversible coma
Slide 28 - Diencephalon: Thalamus Oval mass of gray matter protruding into lateral ventricle (part of diencephalon) Receives nearly all sensory information on its way to cerebral cortex integrate & directs information to appropriate area Interconnected to limbic system so involved in emotional & memory functions
Slide 29 - Walls & floor of 3rd ventricle Functions hormone secretion & pituitary autonomic NS control thermoregulation (thermostat) food & water intake (hunger & satiety) sleep & circadian rhythms memory (mammillary bodies) emotional behavior Diencephalon: Hypothalamus
Slide 30 - Diencephalon: Epithalamus Pineal Gland Epithalamus consists of pineal gland (endocrine) and the habenula (connects limbic system to midbrain.
Slide 31 - Cerebrum -- Gross Anatomy Cerebral cortex is 3mm layer of gray matter with extensive folds to increase surface area ---- divided into lobes
Slide 32 - Frontal contains voluntary motor functions and areas for planning, mood, smell and social judgement Parietal contains areas for sensory reception & integration of sensory information Occipital is visual center of brain Temporal contains areas for hearing, smell, learning, memory, emotional behavior Insula is still little known Functions of Cerebrum Lobes
Slide 33 - Tracts of Cerebral White Matter
Slide 34 - Tracts of Cerebral White Matter Most of volume of cerebrum is white matter Types of tracts projection tracts extend vertically from brain to spinal cord forming internal capsule commissural tracts cross from one hemisphere to the other corpus callosum is wide band of white fiber tracts anterior & posterior commissures are pencil-lead sized association tracts connect lobes & gyri of each hemisphere to each other
Slide 35 - Cerebral Cortex Surface layer of gray matter -- 3 mm thick Neocortex (six-layered tissue) newest part of the cortex (paleocortex & archicortex) layers vary in thickness in different regions of brain 2 types of cells stellate cells have dendrites projectingin all directions pyramidal cells have an axon that passes out of the area
Slide 36 - Basal Nuclei Masses of gray matter deep to cerebral cortex Receive input from substantia nigra & motor cortex & send signals back to these regions Involved in motor control & inhibition of tremors
Slide 37 - Limbic System Loop of cortical structures surrounding deep brain amygdala, hippocampus, fornix & cingulate gyrus Amydala important in emotions and hippocampus in memory -- rest are not sure
Slide 38 - EEG and Brain Waves Electroencephalogram records voltage changes from postsynaptic potentials in cerebral cortex Differences in amplitude & frequency distinguish 4 types of brain waves
Slide 39 - Brain Waves & Sleep States of consciousness can be correlated with EEG 4 types of brain waves alpha occur when awake & resting with eyes closed beta occur with eyes open performing mental tasks theta occur during sleep or emotional stress delta occur during deep sleep Sleep is temporary state of unconsciousness coma is state of unconsciousness with no possible arousal reticular formation seems to regulate state of alertness suprachiasmatic nucleus acts as biological clock to set our circadian rhythm of sleep and waking
Slide 40 - Stages of Sleep Non-REM sleep occurs in stages 4 stages occurring in first 30 to 45 minutes of sleep stage 1 is drifting sensation (would claim was not sleeping) stage 2 still easily aroused stage 3 vital signs change -- BP, pulse & breathing rates drop reached in 20 minutes stage 4 is deep sleep -- difficult to arouse seems to have a restorative effect REM sleep occurs about 5 times a night rapid eye movements under the eyelids, vital signs increase, EEG resembles awake person, dreams and penile erections occur may help sort & strengthen information from memory
Slide 41 - Sleep Stages and Brain Waves Brain waves change as we pass through 4 stages of sleep alpha waves sleep spindles theta delta waves
Slide 42 - Sleep Stages Notice how REM sleep periods become longer and more frequent in the second half of the night
Slide 43 - Cognition Cognition is mental processes such as awareness, perception, thinking, knowledge & memory 75% of brain is association areas where integration of sensory & motor information occurs Examples of effects of brain lesions parietal lobe -- contralateral neglect syndrome temporal lobe -- agnosia (inability to recognize objects) or prosopagnosia (inability to recognize faces) frontal lobe -- problems with personality (inability to plan & execute appropriate behavior)
Slide 44 - Accidental Lobotomy of Phineas Gage Accidental destruction of ventromedial region of both frontal lobes Personality change to an irreverent, profane and fitful person Neuroscientists believe planning, moral judgement, and emotional control are functions of the prefrontal cortex
Slide 45 - Memory Information management requires learning, memory & forgetting (eliminating the trivia) pathological inability to forget have trouble with reading comprehension anterograde amnesia -- can not store new data retrograde amnesia -- can not remember old data Hippocampus is important in organizing sensory & cognitive information into a memory lesion to it causes inability to form new memories Cerebellum helps learn motor skills Amygdala important in emotional memory
Slide 46 - Emotion Prefrontal cortex controls how emotions are expressed (seat of judgement) Emotions form in hypothalamus & amygdala artificial stimulation produces fear, anger, pleasure, love, parental affection, etc. electrode in median forebrain bundle in rat or human and a foot pedal press all day to the exclusion of food (report a quiet, relaxed feeling) Much of our behavior is learned by rewards and punishments or responses of others to them
Slide 47 - Somesthetic Sensation Somesthetic signals travel up gracile and cuneate fascicui and spinothalamic tracts of spinal cord Somatosensory area is postcentral gyrus
Slide 48 - Sensory Homunculus Demonstrates that the area of the cortex dedicated to the sensations of various body parts is proportional to how sensitive that part of the body is.
Slide 49 - Functional Regions of Cerebral Cortex
Slide 50 - Special Senses Organs of smell, vision, hearing & equilibrium project to specialized regions of the brain Locations taste is lower end of postcentral gyrus smell is medial temporal lobe & inferior frontal lobe vision is occipital lobe hearing is superior temporal lobe equilibrium is mainly the cerebellum, but to unknown areas of cerebral cortex via the thalamus
Slide 51 - Sensory Association Areas Association areas interpret sensory information Somesthetic association area (parietal lobe) position of limbs, location of touch or pain, and shape, weight & texture of an object Visual association area (occipital lobe) identify the things we see faces are recognized in temporal lobe Auditory association area (temporal lobe) remember the name of a piece of music or identify a person by his voice
Slide 52 - Motor Control Intention to contract a muscle begins in motor association (premotor) area of frontal lobes Precentral gyrus (primary motor area) processes that order by sending signals to the spinal cord pyramidal cells called upper motor neurons supply muscles of contralateral side due to decussation Motor homunculus is proportional to number of muscle motor units in a region (fine control)
Slide 53 - Motor Homunculus
Slide 54 - Input and Output to Cerebellum Smoothes muscle contractions, maintains muscle tone & posture, coordinates motions of different joints, aids in learning motor skills & coordinates eye movements
Slide 55 - Language Includes reading, writing, speaking & understanding words Wernicke’s area permits recognition of spoken & written language & creates plan of speech angular gyrus processes text into a form we can speak Broca’s area generates motor program for larynx, tongue, cheeks & lips transmits that to primary motor cortex for action Affective language area lesions produce aprosodia area area as Broca’s on opposite hemisphere
Slide 56 - Language Centers
Slide 57 - Aphasia Any language deficit resulting from lesions in same hemisphere as Wernicke’s & Broca’s areas Lesion to Broca’s = nonfluent aphasia slow speech, difficulty in choosing words entire vocabulary may be 2 to 3 words Lesion to Wernicke’s = fluent aphasia speech normal & excessive, but makes little sense Anomic aphasia = speech & understanding are normal but text & pictures make no sense Others = understanding only 1st half of words or writing only consonants
Slide 58 - Lateralization of Cerebral Functions
Slide 59 - Cerebral Lateralization Left hemisphere is categorical hemisphere specialized for spoken & written language, sequential & analytical reasoning (math & science), analyze data in linear way Right hemisphere is representational hemisphere perceives information more holistically, perception of spatial relationships, pattern, comparison of special senses, imagination & insight, music and artistic skill Highly correlated with handedness 91% of people right-handed with left side is categorical Lateralization develops with age trauma more problems in males since females have more communication between hemisphere (corpus callosum is thicker posteriorly)
Slide 60 - The Cranial Nerves 12 pair of nerves that arise from brain & exit through foramina leading to muscles, glands & sense organs in head & neck Input & output remains ipsilateral except CN II & IV
Slide 61 - Photograph of Cranial Nerves
Slide 62 - Olfactory Nerve Provides sense of smell Damage causes impaired sense of smell
Slide 63 - Optic Nerve Provides vision Damage causes blindness in visual field
Slide 64 - Oculomotor Nerve Provides some eye movement, opening of eyelid, constriction of pupil, focusing Damage causes drooping eyelid, dilated pupil, double vision, difficulty focusing & inability to move eye in certain directions
Slide 65 - Trochlear Nerve Provides eye movement Damage causes double vision & inability to rotate eye inferolaterally
Slide 66 - Trigeminal Nerve Main sensory nerve to face (touch, pain and temperature) and muscles of mastication Damage produces loss of sensation & impaired chewing
Slide 67 - Abducens Nerve Provides eye movement Damage results in inability to rotate eye laterally & at rest eye rotates medially
Slide 68 - Facial Nerve Provides facial expressions, sense of taste on anterior 2/3’s of tongue, salivary glands and tear, nasal & palatine glands Damage produces sagging facial muscles & disturbed sense of taste (missing sweet & salty)
Slide 69 - Branches of Facial Nerve Clinical test: Test anterior 2/3’s of tongue with substances such as sugar, salt, vinegar, and quinine; test response of tear glands to ammonia fumes; test motor functions by asking subject to close eyes, smile, whistle, frown, raise eyebrows, etc.
Slide 70 - Vestibulocochlear Nerve Provides hearing & sense of balance Damage produces deafness, dizziness, nausea, loss of balance & nystagmus
Slide 71 - Glossopharyngeal Nerve Provides control over swallowing, salivation, gagging, sensations from posterior 1/3 of tongue, control of BP and respiration Damage results in loss of bitter & sour taste & impaired swallowing
Slide 72 - Vagus Nerve Provides swallowing, speech, regulation of viscera Damage causes hoarseness or loss of voice, impaired swallowing & fatal if both are cut
Slide 73 - Accessory Nerve Provides swallowing, head, neck & shoulder movement Damage causes impaired head, neck & shoulder movement, head turns towards injured side
Slide 74 - Hypoglossal Nerve Provides tongue movements of speech, food manipulation & swallowing Damage results in inability to protrude tongue if both are damaged or deviation towards injured side & ipsilateral atrophy if one side is damaged
Slide 75 - Cranial Nerve Disorders Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux) recurring episodes of intense stabbing pain in trigeminal nerve area (near mouth or nose) pain triggered by touch, drinking, washing face treatment is cutting of nerve Bell palsy degenerative disorder of facial nerve paralysis of facial muscles on one side may appear abruptly & disappear within 3-5 weeks
Slide 76 - PET Scans during a Language Task