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Published on : Mar 14, 2014
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Slide 1 - Bone Fractures, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Repair Physiology Class
Slide 2 - Bone Fractures Fractures of bone can be classified in either a few general ways or a few specific ways
Slide 3 - General Fracture Classification Open or compound - bone protrudes out of skin Closed or simple - bone does not break through skin Complete - bone separates into two fragments Incomplete - bone does not separate into two fragments According to direction of fracture - linear, transverse, oblique
Slide 4 - Specific Fracture Classification Green-stick fracture - an incomplete fracture in which one side of the bone breaks and the other side bends; happens mainly in children
Slide 5 - Specific Fracture Classification Comminuted fracture - a fracture in which the bone breaks into more than two fragments; usually caused by severe forces
Slide 6 - Specific Fracture Classification Impacted fracture - one end of the fracture is forcefully driven into the interior of the other
Slide 7 - Specific Fracture Classification Stress fracture - fracture without being visibly broken; microscopic fissures in bone that forms without any evidence of injury to other tissues; caused by repeated strenuous activity (ex: running)
Slide 8 - Specific Fracture Classification Spiral fracture - fracture spirals down the bone; caused by a twisting force that creates an oblique fracture around and through the bone
Slide 9 - X-rays and Pictures of Fractures
Slide 10 - X-rays and Pictures of Fractures
Slide 11 - Symptoms of Bone Fractures Pain Swelling Loss of function to area Deformity of a limb Sometimes there is bruising from internal bleeding
Slide 12 - Diagnosing Bone Fractures X-rays of injured area Some fractures are difficult to see in an x-ray, so a CT scan, MRI, or other bone scans are used
Slide 13 - Treatment of Fractures There are two main types of treatments: External fixation - casts Internal fixation - surgery Wires - used on small fractures Plates - hold two lengths of bone together with screws Nails or rods - placed in centers of long bones and held in place with screws Screws - most common method; used by self or with other items
Slide 14 - Internal Fixation Examples
Slide 15 - Internal Fixation Examples
Slide 16 - Healing of Fractures Healing time varies for each individual Healing time also depends on: Which bone was broken Severity of the break Age of individual Bones take longer to heal the older that we get
Slide 17 - Bone Repair When bone breaks, so do the blood vessels that supply the bone 1) a clot forms in the damaged area 2) blood vessels and cells invade the clot and produce a fibrous network and cartilage between broken bones (callus) 3) osteoblasts enter callus and begin forming cancellous bone 4) Cancellous bone is remodeled to form compact and cancellous bone; repair is complete