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Bladder Cancer Wiki PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Feb 24, 2014

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  • Slide 1 - Bladder Cancer R. Zenhäusern
  • Slide 2 - Bladder cancer: Epidemiology Incidence: 20/100000/year (Europe) Mortality: 8-9/100000/year Fourth most common cancer in men Incidence: 31.1 mortality: 12.1 Seventh most common cancer in women Incidence: 9.5 mortality: 4.5 At diagnosis >70%: > 65 y of age
  • Slide 3 - Bladder cancer: Histology 90-95% transitional-cell carcinoma 3% squamos-cell carcinoma 2% adenocarcinoma <1% small-cell carcinoma
  • Slide 4 - Bladder cancer: Entities 75-85% superficial bladder cancer pTa, pTis, pT1 10-15% muscle-invasive bladder cancer pT2, pT3, pT4 5% metastatic bladder cancer N+, M+
  • Slide 5 - Bladder cancer: Stage and Prognosis Stage TNM 5-y. Survival 0 Ta/Tis NoMo >85% I T1 NoMo 65-75% II T2a-b NoMo 57% III T3a-4a NoMo 31% IV T4b NoMo 24% each T N+Mo 14% each T M+ med. 6-9 Mo
  • Slide 6 - Superficial Bladder CancerpTa, pT1, Tis Standard of care=intravesical Therapy  transurethral resection Relapse rate: 70%  adjuvant therapy
  • Slide 7 - Superficial Bladder Cancer Histological grading is important G1 G2 G3 Relapse rate 42% 50% 80% Progression rate 2% 11% 45%
  • Slide 8 - Superficial Bladder CancerAdjuvant Therapy Reduces relpase rate by 30-80% Doxorubicin weekly 6-8 w. / monthly 6-12 Mitomycin C weekly 6-8 w. / monthly 6-12 BCG weekly 6-8 w. /Mo 3 and 6
  • Slide 9 - Invasive bladder cancer Standard of care = Radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy Only about 50% of patients with high-grade invasive disease are cured
  • Slide 10 - Results of radical cystectomy Stage Recurrence-Free Overall Survival 5 y. 10y. 5 y. 10y. T2 N- 89 87 77 57 N+ 50 50 52 52 T3a N- 78 76 64 44 N+ 41 37 40 26 T3b N- 62 61 49 29 N+ 29 29 24 12 T4a N- 50 45 44 23 N+ 33 33 26 20 Stein et al JCO 2001;19:666
  • Slide 11 - Results of radical cystectomy Stage Recurrence-Free /Overall Survival 5 years Organ-confined (pT2pNo) 56% 49% Positiv lymph nodes (pT1-4, pN+) 33% 24% Madersbacher et al JCO 2003;21:690
  • Slide 12 - Chemotherapy for bladder cancer Bladder cancer is a chemosensitive disease Active single agents. RR Cisplatin 30% Carboplatin 20% Gemcitabine 20-30% Ifosfamide 20%
  • Slide 13 - Chemotherapy for bladder cancer Combination chemotherapy. RR CR MVAC 40-75% <20% Gemzar / Cisplatin 40-70% 5-15% Gemzar / Carboplatin 65% 5% Taxol / Carboplatin 20-40%
  • Slide 14 - Adjuvant chemotherapy Six randomised trials have compared CT with observation after cystectomy or RT 4x no survival benefit 2x benefit from adjuvant CT  no standard of care node positive disease, lymphovascular invasion, positive margins
  • Slide 15 - Neoadjuvant chemotherapy Meta-analysis of ten randomised trials (2688 patients) 13% reduction in risk of death 5% absolute benefit at 5 years OS increased from 45% to 50% ABC Meta-analysis Collaboration. Lancet 2003;361:1927
  • Slide 16 - Combined Radio- and Chemotherapy CR 5y.OS Radiotherapy 57% 47% RT and cisplatin 85% 69% RT and carboplatin 70% 57% Birkenhake et al. Strahlenther Onkol 1998;174:121
  • Slide 17 - Bladder-sparing therapy for invasive bladder cancer High probability of subsequent distant metastasis after cystectomy or radiotherapy alone (50% within 2 years) Radiotherapy im comparison with cystectomy has inferior results (local control 40%) muscle-invasive bladder cancer is often a systemic disease  combined modality therapy
  • Slide 18 - Bladder-sparing protocol Transurthral resection Induction Therapy: Radiation + chemotherapy (cisplatin, paclitacel) Cystoscopy after 1 month no tumor tumor Consolidation: RT + CT cystectomy
  • Slide 19 - Bladder-sparing protocol Shiply et al. Urology 2002;60:62 T2: 5y / 10y OS: 74% / 66% T3-T4a: 5y / 10y OS: 53% / 52%
  • Slide 20 - Results of bladder-sparing therapy and cystectomy Bladder-sparing n Pat. 5y. OS 5y. Survival therapy % with Bladder % Houssett 1997 120 63 NA Sauer 1998 162 55 44 Shipley 1998 123 49 38 Shipley 2002 190 54 45 Rodel 2002 415 50 42 Cystectomy Dalbagni 2001 181 36 NA Stein 2001 633 48 NA
  • Slide 21 - Combined-modality treatment and organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer Rödel et al. JCO 2002;20:3061 415 patients with T1 high-risk, T1-4, No-1 Treatment: 1. Transurethral resection 2. RT (n=126), RCT (n=289) RT median 54 Gy, CT cisplatin week 1, 5 3. Restaging-TUR
  • Slide 22 - Combined-modality treatment and organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer Rödel et al. JCO 2002;20:3061 Complete remission 72% Local control after CR 64% (10 y.) distant metastasis 35% (10 y.) Disease-specific survival 42% (10 y.) Preservation of bladder >80%
  • Slide 23 - Local control Distant metastasis Rödel et al. JCO 2002;20:3061
  • Slide 24 - Disease-specific survival for patients after salvage cystectomy 50% 45% 21% 18% Rödel et al. JCO 2002;20:3061
  • Slide 25 - TUR and adjuvant Radio-Chemotherapy 5 year Survival 50-65% Preservation of Bladder 38-43%
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