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Published on : Mar 14, 2014
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Slide 1 - Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Slide 2 - 3/18/2014 2 Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Generalised disease of the prostate due to hormonal derangement which leads to enlargement of the gland (increase in the number of epithelial cells and stromal tissue)to cause compression of the urethra leading to symptoms
Slide 3 - BPHProposed Etiologies Cause not completely understood Reawakening of the urogenital sinus to proliferate Change in hormonal milieu with alterations in the testosterone/estrogen balance Induction of prostatic growth factors Increased stem cells/decreased stromal cell death Accumulation of dihydroxytestosterone, stimulation by estrogen and prostatic growth hormone actions
Slide 4 - 3/18/2014 4 BPH facts Occurs in 50% of men over 50 and in 80% of men over 80 have BPH BPH progresses differently in every individual Many men with BPH may have mild symptoms and may never need treatment BPH does not predispose to the development of prostate cancer
Slide 5 - 3/18/2014 5 Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Slide 6 - BPH Pathophysiology Normal BPH Hypertrophied detrusor muscle Obstructed urinary flow PROSTATE BLADDER URETHRA Kirby RS et al. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Health Press, 1995.
Slide 7 - BPH Pathophysiology Slow and insidious changes over time Complex interactions between prostatic urethral resistance, intravesical pressure, detrussor functionality, neurologic integrity, and general physical health. Initial hypertrophydetrussor decompensation poor tonediverticula formationincreasing urine volumehydronephrosisupper tract dysfunction
Slide 8 - 3/18/2014 8 Complications Urinary retention UTI Sepsis secondary to UTI Residual urine Calculi Renal failure Hematuria Hernias, hemorroids, bowel habit change
Slide 9 - 3/18/2014 9 Clinical manifestations Voiding symptoms decrease in the urinary stream Straining Dribbling at the end of urination Intermittency Hesitancy Pain or burning during urination Feeling of incomplete bladder emptying
Slide 10 - 3/18/2014 10 Clinical manifestations Irritative symptoms urinary frequency urgency dysuria bladder pain nocturia incontinence symptoms associated with infection
Slide 11 - Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Leading to “symptom bother” and worsened QOL
Slide 12 - Other Relevant History GU History (STD, trauma, surgery) Other disorders (eg. neurologic, diabetes) Medications (anti-cholinergics) Functional Status
Slide 13 - 3/18/2014 13 Diagnostic Tests History & Examination Abdominal/GU exam Focused neuro exam Digital rectal exam (DRE) Validated symptom questionnaire. Urinalysis Urine culture BUN, Cr Prostate specific antigen (PSA) Transrectal ultrasound – biopsy Uroflometry Postvoid residual
Slide 14 - AUA Symptom Score Sheet International prostate symptom score (IPSS)   Name:       Date:             Total score: 0-7 Mildly symptomatic; 8-19 moderately symptomatic; 20-35 severely symptomatic.   Total score: 0-7 Mildly symptomatic; 8-19 moderately symptomatic; 20-35 severely symptomatic.
Slide 15 - 3/18/2014 15 DRE
Slide 16 - BPHDanger Signs on DRE Firm to hard nodules Irregularities, unequal lobes Induration Stony hard prostate Any palpable nodular abnormality suggests cancer and warrants investigation
Slide 17 - Optional Evaluations and Diagnostic Tests Urine cytology in patients with: Predominance of irritative voiding symptoms. Smoking history Flow rate and post-void residual Not necessary before medical therapy but should be considered in those undergoing invasive therapy or those with neurologic conditions Upper tract evaluation if hematuria, increased creatinine Cystoscopy
Slide 18 - ppt slide no 18 content not found
Slide 19 - 3/18/2014 19 PSA Elevated levels of PSA 0 – 4 ng/ml Prostatic pathology Correlates with tumor mass Some men with prostate cancer have normal PSA levels
Slide 20 - BPH SYMPTOMSDifferential Diagnosis Urethral stricture Bladder neck contracture Carcinoma of the prostate Carcinoma of the bladder Bladder calculi Urinary tract infection and prostatitis Neurogenic bladder
Slide 21 - BPH TREATMENT INDICATIONSAbsolute vs Relative Severe obstruction Urinary retention Signs of upper tract dilatation and renal insufficiency Moderate symptoms of prostatism Recurrent UTI’s Hematuria Quality of life issues
Slide 22 - Treatment Options Mild to severe symptoms with little “bother” Manage with watchful waiting. Risk of therapy outweighs the benefit of medical or surgical treatment Moderate to severe symptoms with bother Management options include watchful waiting, medical management and surgical treatment.
Slide 23 - Therapy Watchful waiting and behavioral modification Medical Management Alpha blockers 5-alpha reductase inhibitors Combination therapy Surgical Management Office based therapy OR based therapy Urethral stents
Slide 24 - Watchful Waiting and Behavioral Modification “is the preferred management technique in patients with mild symptoms and minimal bother” AUA score < 7, 1/3 improve on own.
Slide 25 - Watchful Waiting and Behavioral Modification Decrease caffeine, alcohol )diuretic effect( Avoid taking large amounts of fluid over a short period of time Void whenever the urge is present, every 2-3 hours Maintain normal fluid intake, do not restrict fluid Avoid bladder irritants to include dairy products, artificial sweeteners, carbonated beverages Limit nighttime fluid consumption BPH symptoms can be variable, intermittent
Slide 26 - Medical Management Nutritional supplements Saw Palmetto Alpha blockers Doxazosin (Cardura), Terazosin (Hytrin), Tamsulosin (Flomax), Alfuzosin (Uroxatral) 5-alpha reductase inhibitors Finasteride (Proscar), Dutasteride (Avodart) Combination therapy Alpha blocker and 5-alpha reductase inhibitor
Slide 27 - Benefits Convenient No loss of work time Minimal risk Disadvantages Expensive Drug Interactions Must be taken every day Manages the problem instead of fixing it medication n n n n n n n
Slide 28 - 3/18/2014 28 Medical Management Alpha adrenergic receptor blockers promote smooth muscle relaxation in the prostate Relaxation of the muscles facilitates urinary flow Doxazosin (Cardura), Terazosin (Hytrin), Tamsulosin (Flomax), Alfuzosin (Uroxatral) Side effects: postural hypotension, dizziness, fatigue, Other problems can occur when pt is also taking cardiac or other hypertensive drugs
Slide 29 - Alpha-Adrenergic Blockers Equal clinical effectiveness Slight differences in adverse event profile Orthostasis (lower in tamsulosin) Ejaculatory dysfunction (higher in tamsulosin) Decreased energy levels Nasal congestion Increase in CHF risk with doxazosin Must titrate doxazosin and terazosin to effective levels
Slide 30 - 3/18/2014 30 Medical Management 5 alpha reductase inhibitor ) finasteride: Proscar( Reduce size of prostate gland by up to 30 % Blocks the enzyme of 5 alpha reductase which is nec, for the conversion of testosterone to dihydroxytestostersone Regression of hyperplastic growth Don’t work immediately Small effect on symptom score and flow rates
Slide 31 - 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors Agents are effective and appropriate treatment for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and demonstrable enlargement of the prostate. Average prostate size is 30 cc’s. Original studies showed benefit only in men with prostate sizes greater than 50 cc’s.
Slide 32 - 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors Finasteride (Proscar) and Dutasteride (Avodart) Less effective for relief of BPH symptoms than alpha blockers Adverse events include Decreased libido Worsened sexual function (erectile dysfunction) decrease volume of ejaculation Breast enlargement and tenderness Reduces risk of urinary retention by 3%/year. PSA must be doubled if screening for prostate cancer
Slide 33 - Combination Therapy Concomitant use of alpha blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors Should be reserved for patients who are at significant risk of progression and adverse outcome Poor surgical candidate Patient wants to avoid surgery Significant cost associated with dual medications
Slide 34 - 3/18/2014 34 Medical Management Herbal therapy – saw palmetto fruit – use to improve urinary symptoms and urinary flow Problem with herbal therapy – long term effectiveness
Slide 35 - surgical treatment
Slide 36 - Surgical Management Office based therapies: Transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT) Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA) Therapies are effective or partially effective for relieving the symptoms of BPH Significant side effects/complications associated with these treatments have prompted a FDA warning
Slide 37 - Surgical Management OR based therapies Open simple prostatectomy TURP Transurethral incision of the prostate Laser photoselective vaporization of the prostate (green light laser PVP) Laser Prostatectomy
Slide 38 - Surgical Management Patients may select surgical treatment as initial therapy if moderate or severe bother is present. Patients who have developed complications of BPH (i.e urinary retention, renal insufficiency, recurrent UTI) are best treated surgically. New surgical treatment have not demonstrated better outcomes than TURP to date.
Slide 39 - BPH TREATMENTSurgical Indicated for AUA score >16 Transurethral Prostatectomy(TURP): 18% morbidity with .2% mortality. 80-90% improvement at 1 year but 60-75% at 5 years and 5% require repeat TURP. Transurethral Incision of Prostate (TUIP): less morbidity with similar efficacy indicated for smaller prostates. Open Prostatectomy: indicated for glands > 60 grams or when additional procedure needed for suprapubic/retropubic approaches
Slide 40 - TURP “Gold Standard” of care for BPH n
Slide 41 - the “gold standard”- TURP Benefits Widely available Effective Long lasting Disadvantages Greater risk of side effects and complications 1-4 days hospital stay 1-3 days catheter 4-6 week recovery n n n n n n n
Slide 42 - possible side effects of Greater than 5% risk of: Irritative voiding symptoms Bladder neck contracture UTI Risk of incontinence 1% Decline in erectile function 65% of retrograde ejaculation TUR syndrome (acute hyponatremia from free water absorption) Hemorrhage Bladder spasms TURP
Slide 43 - 3/18/2014 43 Preoperative Goals Restoration of urinary drainage Treatment of any urinary tract infection Understanding of procedure, implications for sexual functioning and urinary control
Slide 44 - 3/18/2014 44 Preoperative care Antibiotics Allow pt to discuss concerns about surgery on sexual functioning Prostatic surgery may result in retrograde ejaculation
Slide 45 - 3/18/2014 45 Postoperative Goals No complications Restoration of urinary control Complete bladder emptying Satisfying sexual expression
Slide 46 - 3/18/2014 46 Postoperative Care Monitoring Continuous irrigation & maintain catheter patency Blood clots and hematuria are expected for the first 24-36 hours After catheter is removed – check for urinary retention and urinary stream
Slide 47 - 3/18/2014 47 TURP Sphincter tone may be poor after catheter is removed. Kegal exercise pelvic muscle floor technique is encouraged. Starting and stopping the urinary stream is helpful. Stool softeners to avoid straining Sitting and walking for long periods should be avoided
Slide 48 - 3/18/2014 48 Discharge planning Catheter care Managing urinary incontinence Oral fluid intake – 2,000-3,000 cc per day Observe for s/s of urinary tract infection Prevent constipation Avoid lifting No driving or intercourse after surgery
Slide 49 - 3/18/2014 49 Surgical approaches for prostatectomy Retropubic Midline abd. incision Perineal Incision between the scrotum and anus Suprapubic Abdominal incision
Slide 50 - 3/18/2014 50 Prostatectomy Complications: Bleeding Postoperative pain Risk for infection Erectile dysfunction
Slide 51 - BPH TREATMENTNew Modalities Minimally invasive: (Prostatic Stents,TUNA,TUMT, HIFU,Water-induced Thermotherapy) Laser prostatectomy (VLAP,ILC,CLAP,TULIP,HoLRP) Electrovaporization (TUVP,TVRP)
Slide 52 - Destroy prostate tissue with heat Tissue is left in the body and is expelled over time (called sloughing) Transurethral Microwave Therapy (TUMT) Transurethral Needle Ablation (TUNA®) Interstitial Laser Coagulation (ILC) Water Induced Thermotherapy (WIT) heat therapies n n n n n n
Slide 53 - heat therapies Benefits Office treatments Local anesthesia Minimally invasive Reduced risk of complications as compared to invasive surgical “TURP” Disadvantages Some symptoms will persist for up to 3 months Cannot predict who will respond May require prolonged catheterization n n n n n n n
Slide 54 - possible side effects of Urinary Tract Infection Impotence Incontinence heat therapies n n n
Slide 55 - Laser Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate (Laser PVP) TURP-equivalent 7 year improvement in symptom score and urination parameters Decreased risk of bleeding and TUR syndrome, otherwise similar adverse effect profile May be done on anti-coagulated patients