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Slide 1 - Brain Structure and Function
Slide 2 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977)
Slide 3 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft
Slide 4 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft
Slide 5 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage
Slide 6 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian
Slide 7 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing
Slide 8 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages
Slide 9 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep
Slide 10 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
Slide 11 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones)
Slide 12 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video)
Slide 13 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip
Slide 14 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear
Slide 15 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966
Slide 16 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Slide 17 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center
Slide 18 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres
Slide 19 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision
Slide 20 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex
Slide 21 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
Slide 22 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex
Slide 23 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation
Slide 24 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation
Slide 25 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10
Slide 26 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression
Slide 27 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE
Slide 28 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization
Slide 29 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage
Slide 30 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity
Slide 31 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity
Slide 32 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization
Slide 33 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres
Slide 34 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor
Slide 35 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field
Slide 36 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field
Slide 37 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity
Slide 38 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity Brain Plasticity The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge Age dependent component Brain injuries
Slide 39 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity Brain Plasticity The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge Age dependent component Brain injuries Environmental influences on neuroplasticity Impoverished environment Enriched environment
Slide 40 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity Brain Plasticity The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge Age dependent component Brain injuries Environmental influences on neuroplasticity Impoverished environment Enriched environment Sensation and Perception
Slide 41 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity Brain Plasticity The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge Age dependent component Brain injuries Environmental influences on neuroplasticity Impoverished environment Enriched environment Sensation and Perception Sensation The process by which the central nervous system receives input from the environment via sensory neurons Bottom up processing
Slide 42 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity Brain Plasticity The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge Age dependent component Brain injuries Environmental influences on neuroplasticity Impoverished environment Enriched environment Sensation and Perception Sensation The process by which the central nervous system receives input from the environment via sensory neurons Bottom up processing Perception The process by which the brain interprets and organizes sensory information Top-down processing
Slide 43 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity Brain Plasticity The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge Age dependent component Brain injuries Environmental influences on neuroplasticity Impoverished environment Enriched environment Sensation and Perception Sensation The process by which the central nervous system receives input from the environment via sensory neurons Bottom up processing Perception The process by which the brain interprets and organizes sensory information Top-down processing The psychophysics of sensation Absolute threshold  the minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus with 50% accuracy Subliminal stimulation  below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness May affect behavior without conscious awareness Sensory adaptation/habituation  diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus
Slide 44 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity Brain Plasticity The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge Age dependent component Brain injuries Environmental influences on neuroplasticity Impoverished environment Enriched environment Sensation and Perception Sensation The process by which the central nervous system receives input from the environment via sensory neurons Bottom up processing Perception The process by which the brain interprets and organizes sensory information Top-down processing The psychophysics of sensation Absolute threshold  the minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus with 50% accuracy Subliminal stimulation  below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness May affect behavior without conscious awareness Sensory adaptation/habituation  diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus The five major senses Vision – electromagnetic Occipital lobe Hearing – mechanical Temporal lobe Touch – mechanical Sensory cortex Taste – chemical Gustatory insular cortex Smell – chemical Olfactory bulb Orbitofrontal cortex Vomeronasal organ?
Slide 45 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity Brain Plasticity The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge Age dependent component Brain injuries Environmental influences on neuroplasticity Impoverished environment Enriched environment Sensation and Perception Sensation The process by which the central nervous system receives input from the environment via sensory neurons Bottom up processing Perception The process by which the brain interprets and organizes sensory information Top-down processing The psychophysics of sensation Absolute threshold  the minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus with 50% accuracy Subliminal stimulation  below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness May affect behavior without conscious awareness Sensory adaptation/habituation  diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus The five major senses Vision – electromagnetic Occipital lobe Hearing – mechanical Temporal lobe Touch – mechanical Sensory cortex Taste – chemical Gustatory insular cortex Smell – chemical Olfactory bulb Orbitofrontal cortex Vomeronasal organ? The sixth sense Vestibular  balance and motion Inner ear Proprioceptive  relative position of body parts Parietal lobe Temperature  heat Thermoreceptors throughout the body, sensory cortex Nociception  pain Nociceptors throughout the body, sensory cortex And the seventh…and eighth…and ninth…
Slide 46 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity Brain Plasticity The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge Age dependent component Brain injuries Environmental influences on neuroplasticity Impoverished environment Enriched environment Sensation and Perception Sensation The process by which the central nervous system receives input from the environment via sensory neurons Bottom up processing Perception The process by which the brain interprets and organizes sensory information Top-down processing The psychophysics of sensation Absolute threshold  the minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus with 50% accuracy Subliminal stimulation  below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness May affect behavior without conscious awareness Sensory adaptation/habituation  diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus The five major senses Vision – electromagnetic Occipital lobe Hearing – mechanical Temporal lobe Touch – mechanical Sensory cortex Taste – chemical Gustatory insular cortex Smell – chemical Olfactory bulb Orbitofrontal cortex Vomeronasal organ? The sixth sense Vestibular  balance and motion Inner ear Proprioceptive  relative position of body parts Parietal lobe Temperature  heat Thermoreceptors throughout the body, sensory cortex Nociception  pain Nociceptors throughout the body, sensory cortex And the seventh…and eighth…and ninth… Thresholds of the five major senses
Slide 47 - Brain Structure and Function “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977) Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VT Paving the way for new RR tracks “Tamping Iron” 1.25in x 3ft Accident Quick Recovery Months later: “No longer Gage” Before: capable, efficient, best foreman, well-balanced mind After: extravagant, anti-social, liar, grossly profane Stint with P.T Barnum Died 12 years later Watch Clip Phineas Gage Evolution of the Brain Reptilian  Paleomammalian  Neomammalian The Brain Brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance Parts of the Brain amygdala pituitary hippocampus THALAMUS  Relays messages Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a whole Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance The Limbic System Hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory Hippocampus  Memory processing Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones) The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland linked to emotion (show video) The Limbic System Show self stimulation clip The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fear Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966 The Brain Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing center The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speech Sensory Auditory Vision The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments the “executive” Parietal Lobes include the sensory cortex The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes include the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex Motor/Sensory Cortex Contralateral Homunculus Unequal representation Sensory Areas – Sensory Homunculus Figure 13.10 The Cerebral Cortex Aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) –see clips Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression Language Areas Broca  Expression Wernicke  Comprehensionand reception Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE Paul Broca [1800s] Suggested localization Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity Brain Lateralization Our Divided Brains Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual field Left hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field Split Brain Patients Epileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brain Lives largely unaffected, seizures reduced Affected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual field Brain Plasticity Brain Plasticity The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge Age dependent component Brain injuries Environmental influences on neuroplasticity Impoverished environment Enriched environment Sensation and Perception Sensation The process by which the central nervous system receives input from the environment via sensory neurons Bottom up processing Perception The process by which the brain interprets and organizes sensory information Top-down processing The psychophysics of sensation Absolute threshold  the minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus with 50% accuracy Subliminal stimulation  below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness May affect behavior without conscious awareness Sensory adaptation/habituation  diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus The five major senses Vision – electromagnetic Occipital lobe Hearing – mechanical Temporal lobe Touch – mechanical Sensory cortex Taste – chemical Gustatory insular cortex Smell – chemical Olfactory bulb Orbitofrontal cortex Vomeronasal organ? The sixth sense Vestibular  balance and motion Inner ear Proprioceptive  relative position of body parts Parietal lobe Temperature  heat Thermoreceptors throughout the body, sensory cortex Nociception  pain Nociceptors throughout the body, sensory cortex And the seventh…and eighth…and ninth… Thresholds of the five major senses The Retina The retina at the back of the eye is actually part of the brain! Rods – brightness Cones – color