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Slide 1 - An Introduction to Business-To-Business Internet Trades Zhangxi Lin December, 2000
Slide 2 - Outline Electronic Commerce and Internet Technology Business-to-Business (B2B) Models Peer-to-Peer (P2P) E-Commerce B2B Forecasts
Slide 3 - Sources for B2B US Federal Trade Commission Workshop on B2B Electronic Marketplaces (June 29-30, 2000, 600+ participants, organized from 200+ sources, 30 statements submitted) Cnet news Technews
Slide 4 - Three IT Adoption Waves The first ripple occurred in the 1980s, when many businesses reluctantly adopted computing to improve productivity. In the 1990s, change accelerated when the powerful tide of client/server computing brought new capabilities to businesses, allowing them to compress value chains and expand reach. Today, the third wave, Internet computing, presents a clear set of incentives driving far more rapid adoption than the two previous phases.
Slide 5 - Company IT Adoption
Slide 6 - B2B Dictionary B2B, B2C and C2C ASP (Application Service Provider) CRM (Customer Relationship Management. An application system.) EDI (Electronic Data Exchange) Fulfillment (The act of physically getting a product to a buyer) Hosts (e-market makers) Functional Hubs (A way to describe horizontal products and services.)
Slide 7 - Five B2B Generations EDI (Buyer-centric) Storefronts (seller-side systems) Buyer-driven Procurement (Buyer-side systems) Net Markets, Independent or Coalition Hosted Private Market
Slide 8 - Net Market (4th Generation) Net Markets are online intermediaries where many buyers and many sellers can congregate to trade. Net Markets essentially match buyers and sellers using a variety of market mechanisms including auctions, catalogs, and Nasdaq-like exchanges. The first Net Markets were independent entities, often funded by venture capital, which sought to be neutral intermediaries between buyers and sellers.
Slide 9 - Net Market Model
Slide 10 - Private B2B Marketplaces (5th Generation) The latest model to emerge has been that of private marketplaces, defined as areas within independent or coalition Net Markets in which specific buyers can interact and trade with designated sellers, or vice versa. Private marketplaces use the technology infrastructure of the Net Market to create essentially direct connections between buyers and sellers. This system saves infrastructure investments for buyers and suppliers and offers additional revenue sources for Net Markets.
Slide 11 - Three B2B Ownership Models Third-party exchanges, e.g. Ventro and FreeMarket Consortia-led exchanges, e.g. Covisint Private/Proprietary exchanges, e.g. Dell > 745 B2B exchanges have been announced in the first half year of 2000 93% are of the third type
Slide 12 - Business Models for B2B Intermediaries Catalog: CommerceOne and GM’s TradeXchange Exchange: Tradex Auction FreeMarkets Negotiations
Slide 13 - Vertical vs. Horizontal Hub types: Vertical (e.g. VerticalNet, PlasticsNet) Serves a vertical market Requires industry knowledge and relationships Horizontal (e.g., Adauction) Provides same function across industries Which one will win? 
Slide 14 - URL’s
Slide 15 - Case 1 - PlasticsNet Operator of vertical trade communities for the plastic industry Founders came from plastics instead of technical background Goes from a BBS to B2B communities High-margin transactions:5—10% commission
Slide 16 - Case 2 - FreeMarkets Online Inc. Pre-select qualified suppliers Assess, evaluate & short list Conduct global online auctions Helping companies with RFQ for custom components 3000 companies from 45 countries participate in Operates about 70 different vertical industries $7 million in 1998 commissions
Slide 17 - Case 3 - Aeroexchange A consortium for 13 airline companies offers airframe, avionics, maintenance services, and general goods and services With web-based applications
Slide 18 - Case 4 - Covisint Created by Ford, GM and DiamlerChrysler For trading automobile related goods and services Attracts 20+ buyers and suppliers, such as Nissan, Renault and BASF.
Slide 19 - Case 5 - Exotar Formed by Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon and BAE Systems For aerospace and defense industry
Slide 20 - Case 6 - DELL Michael Dell started his computer business in 1984 Dell Computer’s growth 1985 – $6 million 1990 - $500 million 1993 - +40%, but faced operating loss 1996 - $7.8 billion Dell’s direct sell (started in 1997) Order-shipping process 36 hrs vs. regular 75-100 days Reduced suppliers from 204 in 1992 to 47 13-day inventory Cash flow cycle reduced to 24 hrs comparing to Gateway 16.5 days and Compaq 35 days. Direct monitor shipping from suppliers
Slide 21 - Efficiencies of B2B Electronic Marketplaces A survey conducted in spring 2000: Only 1% companies are conducting e-business through their websites. 80% B2B processes are still manual, and 20% considered automated are actually not yet.
Slide 22 - B2B Efficiencies Administration costs Search costs New markets Maverick purchasing (buying occurs outside the normal channel) Joint purchasing System integration (with the legacy system) Supply chain management (from push marketing to pull marketing) Collaboration (Outsourcing product design), joint channel of distribution Middlemen (the new service particularly for small business)
Slide 23 - B2B’s Attributes Huge market opportunity Financially light business model Scalable Acquisition cost effect Sticky products Multiple revenue stream
Slide 24 - How B2B Companies Make Money? Sales of products Service and maintenance fee Transaction fee and listing fee Advertising
Slide 25 - Peer-to-peer E-Commerce P2P history Napster was set up as a network of PCs with a central server acting as a clearinghouse. It primarily facilitated exchange of MP3 files and grew to be popular in a very short time. Although Napster has suffered in the lawsuit against its copyright problem, a large number of other P2P networks are flourishing without centralized servers. So, no target to be attacked. E.g. Gnutella by Nullsoft, shares all type of information. Freenet by Ian Clarke, is a more efficient decentralized P2P platform.
Slide 26 - Why P2P So Hot? It provides a technology that allows people search for and retrieve files from individual computers around the world. A June article in Fortune magazine dubbed file sharing “the hot idea of the year,” alerting investors to a trend that would “revolutionize infotech and reinvigorate the PC industry.” P2P will likely seep into B2C and B2B e-commerce and fuel demand for the services.
Slide 27 - The Power of P2P The key idea of P2P is decentralization with two characteristics: Load balancing (like distributed cashing) Effective searching (e.g. InfraSearch) Users are active in P2P, while in a typical Internet application users are passive and not provide information to the network.
Slide 28 - P2P in B2B Using P2P in B2B can avoid problems rooted in the web-based centralized e-market architecture.
Slide 29 - Issue for P2P in B2B Distributed authentication Confidentiality Standards Information asset protection Peer qualification B2B Services charged for P2P
Slide 30 - Key Comments on P2P in B2B Standards are critical How P2P drives real value in B2B The borderless economy will be accelerated by P2P P2P changes the Internet as the Internet changed computing It is difficult to maintain security It is hard to make profit from P2P
Slide 31 - Will P2P Companies Thrive or Die? Optimists: “P2P is going to be the computing paradigm in the future.” Detractors: “P2P companies will never make good revenue because the essence of file sharing is contrary to file selling and profits.”
Slide 32 - Online B2B Growth Total US B2B non-service trade will rise from $11.5 trillion in 2000 to $15.1 trillion in 2005. The Internet's share of total US B2B trade will soar from 3% in 2000 to 42% in 2005. Internet trade will grow more than 20 times in five years from $336 billion in 2000 to $6.3 trillion in 2005. In 2004, online trade will represent over 50% of total B2B commerce. By 2005, Net Markets will account for 35% of B-to-B online commerce as compared to 2% in 2000.
Slide 33 - B2B Trade Forecast
Slide 34 - Models for Trade Between Buyers and Sellers
Slide 35 - Net Market Online Trade Penetration, by Industry
Slide 36 - Online Trade Forecast: Top Five Industries
Slide 37 - B-to-B Online Trade Forecast
Slide 38 - Mapping Online Potential of Industry Segments
Slide 39 - Factors Driving Online Trade Adoption
Slide 40 - Stock Price (Commerce One)
Slide 41 - New Economy Crisis? Nasdaq Crash Hi-tech Investors lose confidence 90% Dot COMs go bankruptcy VCs Reduce investment Venture capital companies (VC) are hurt
Slide 42 - The Future is Brilliant Information Technology will continue to exert profound influence in economy growth The fluctuation will be finally stabilized.