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Slide 1 - Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder The original version of these slides was provided by Michael W. Otto, Ph.D. with support from NIMH Excellence in Training Award at the Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders at Boston University (R25 MH08478)
Slide 2 - Use of this Slide Set Presentation information is listed in the notes section below the slide (in PowerPoint normal viewing mode). A bibliography for this slide set is provided below in the note section for this slide. References are also provided in note sections for select subsequent slides.
Slide 3 - Slide Set Outline Treatment outcome findings Perspectives across meta analyses Treatment models Similarities (over differences) Elements of treatment What is accomplished in session Future directions
Slide 4 - Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Diagnostic Considerations Pervasive worry and chronic arousal Residual category of panic disorder in DSM-III Spheres of worry in DSM-III-R and chronic arousal Excessive and uncontrollable worry and 3 of 6 symptoms in DSM-IV restless, keyed up, on edge easily fatigued difficulties concentrating irritability muscle tension sleep disturbance
Slide 5 - Core Patterns in GAD Uncontrollable worry Future orientation Negative cognitive biases Somatic arousal Role and task inefficiency Interpersonal aversiveness (unbalanced relationships)
Slide 6 - GAD: Core Treatment Elements Information Applied Relaxation Cognitive Restructuring (probability estimates, coping estimates) Cue-Controlled Worry (worry times + problem solving) Worry Exposure (including existential topics) Mindfulness
Slide 7 - Meta-Analyses: 5 Perspectives All Randomized Trials (pre-post) Norton & Price, 2007 Placebo-Controlled Trials (controlled effect size) Hofmann & Smits, 2008 Elements of Treatment (controlled effect size) Gould et al., 2004 Differential Efficacy (pre-post) Siev & Chambless, 2007 Gould et al., 2004 Effectiveness Trials (pre-post) Stewart & Chambless, 2009
Slide 8 - Meta-Analysis of Randomized Anxiety Trials of CBT (within ES) Norton & Price, 2007, JNMD Effect Size (d)
Slide 9 - Hofmann & Smits (2008) Meta-Analysis Meta-analysis of well-controlled trials of CBT for anxiety Inclusion criteria: Random assignment to either CBT or placebo The psychological placebo had to involve interventions to control for nonspecific factors (e.g., regular contact with a therapist, reasonable rationale for the intervention, discussions of the psychological problem)
Slide 10 - ppt slide no 10 content not found
Slide 11 - Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials of CBT (Between ES) Hofmann & Smits, 2008, J Clin Psychiatry Effect Size (g)
Slide 12 - Gould et al., 2004 Meta-Analysis 16 studies Mean drop-out rate 11.4% Mean 10.1 hours of treatment No difference in outcome for studies allowing stabilized medications Maintenance of treatment gains across 6 months
Slide 13 - Meta-Analysis of CBT – Gould et al., 2004 Between Groups Effect Size (d)
Slide 14 - Specificity of Treatment (Siev & Chambless, 2007, JCCP) GAD CT = RT Panic Disorder CT* > RT Cognitive Therapy (CT) includes interoceptive exposure Relaxation Therapy (RT)
Slide 15 - Meta-Analyses of Effectiveness Studies (Within ES) (Stewart & Chambless, 2009, JCCP) Effect Size (d)
Slide 16 - Comorbidity and Treatment (Newman et al., 2010) 76 treatment seeking adults with GAD 14 sessions of treatment 60.5% had comorbidity Comorbid diagnosis linked to greater GAD severity at pretreatment Greater change with treatment for those with comorbid depression, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia Normal maintenance of treatment gains Benefits to social anxiety disorder and specific phobia were maintained over 2 years, whereas benefits to depression were not
Slide 17 - CBT Models of GAD (Behar et al., 2009, J Anx Dis) Avoidance Model of Worry and GAD (Borkovec, 1994; Borkovec et al., 2004) Intolerance of Uncertainty Model (Dugas et al., 1995; Freeston et al., 1994) Metacognitive Model (Wells, 1995) Emotion Dysregulation Model (Mennin et al., 2002) Acceptance-Based Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Roemer & Orsillo, 2002, 2005)
Slide 18 - Wells (1999) “Worry is a chain of catastrophising thoughts that are predominantly verbal. It consists of the contemplation of potentially dangerous situations and of personal coping strategies. It is intrusive and controllable although it is often experienced as uncontrollable. Worrying is associated with a motivation to prevent or avoid potential danger. Worry itself may be viewed as a coping strategy but can become the focus of …concern.”
Slide 19 - Two Types of Worry (Dugas & Ladouceur, 2000) Situations amenable to problem solving Training in step-by-step problem solving Situations that are not amenable to problem solving (hypothetical problems that never happen) Worry times Worry exposure
Slide 20 - Avoidance Function of Worry Worry, a verbal process, inhibits vivid mental imagery and associated anxiety (Borkovec) Evidence that it does attenuate: somatic arousal at rest (Hoehn-Saric & McLeod, 1988; Hoehn-Saric, McLeod, & Zimmerli, 1989; Lyonfields, Borkovec, & Thayer, 1995; Thayer, Friedman, &Borkovec, 1996) upon subsequent exposure to threat-related material (Borkovec & Hu, 1990; Peasley-Miklus & Vrana, 2000)
Slide 21 - Worry and Conditioning Non-clinical levels of worry are linked to greater conditionability (Otto et al., 2008; Hermans et al., 2009) Potential role for rumination in keeping CS – UCS link alive
Slide 22 - Borkovec Encourage a present focus vs. future (past) Leave patients expectancy free
Slide 23 - Positive Beliefs About Worries Worrying: Is useful for finding solutions to problems Is motivating – helps get things done Is protective from negative emotions Can prevent negative outcomes Is a positive personality trait (Francis & Dugas, 2004)
Slide 24 - Negative Problem Orientation Problems are threat to well-being Doubt about problem-solving ability Pessimism about problem solving outcome Negative problem orientation is more specific to worry than depression in student samples, and is differentiated from neuroticism (Robichaud & Dugas, 2005, BRAT)
Slide 25 - Intolerance of Uncertainty Motivates unnecessary worry-based planning “What if X happens, could I cope by…”
Slide 26 - All current models tend to underscore avoidance of internal experiences Cognitive avoidance Emotional avoidance Intolerance of uncertainty Negative cognitive reactions to emotions Combined With Positive beliefs about worry While being concerned about effects of worry
Slide 27 - Treatment Elements Borkovec Awareness and self-monitoring Relaxation Cognitive therapy Imagery rehearsal of coping strategies (see Borkovec, 2006 for review)
Slide 28 - Treatment Elements Wells Case formulation Socialization to treatment Modifying negative beliefs about the uncontrollability of worry Modifying beliefs about the danger of worry Modifying positive beliefs about worry (Wells, 1999)
Slide 29 - Treatment Elements Dugas et al. Uncertainty recognition and behavioral exposure Re-evaluation of the usefulness of worry Problem-solving training Imaginal exposure (Dugas et al., 2003)
Slide 30 - Relaxation Strategies Progressive Relaxation (PR; e.g., Bernstein & Borkovec, 1973) Applied Relaxation (AR;O¨ st, 1987). AR does include exposure elements
Slide 31 - Mechanism of Relaxation Training (Ost, 1992) Reduces general tension and anxiety (and link stressor/panic) Enhances awareness about how anxiety works, de-mystifying and diminishing its impact Enhances self-efficacy : individuals feel equipped to cope with anxiety
Slide 32 - Relaxation Training Feel the difference between tension and relaxation Tense 7 seconds, relax 15 Specific muscle groups to learn the procedure Group them as skill increases Use 10-second relaxation cue
Slide 33 - The “Words” of Worry Non-specific and hard to dispute It will be horrible It will be a disaster Downward Arrow Techniques to clarify worries and put them in a form appropriate for cognitive-restructuring
Slide 34 - Cognitive Restructuring Self monitoring Logical analysis Probability overestimations Overestimations of the degree of catastrophe Ability to cope
Slide 35 - Relapse Prevention in Depression - Metacognitive Awareness Classic CT and mindfulness-based CT both enhance metacognitive awareness Level of metacognitive awareness is linked to relapse Changing the relationship people have to their thoughts, rather than changing beliefs, may be important for preventing relapse (Teasdale et al., 2002)
Slide 36 - Mindfulness – Curious attention to the present moment, in an open, nonjudgmental, and accepting manner (Bishop et al., 2004; Germer, 2005; Kabat-Zinn, 1994)
Slide 37 - Why Mindfulness? Hayes and Feldman, 2004 Mindfulness training may enhance emotional regulation by addressing the patterns of over-engagement (e.g., rumination) and under-engagement (avoidance) that characterizes the disorder. Target is a healthy level of engagement that “allows clarity and functional use of emotional responses” Roemer et al, 2009 Non-clinical symptoms and clinical GAD status linked to lower mindfulness
Slide 38 - Worry Time Save up the worry (cue specificity) End of the day worry time In office (non-fun) setting 45 min – with writing 10 min – relaxation skills Go have fun
Slide 39 - GAD: Worry Exposure Metaphor: Like watching a scary movie over and over – decreased arousal and changed meaning of the worry Apply exposure plus response prevention (including the use of tape loops) The goal is elimination of the worry response via repeated exposure to core fears This technique should also be coupled with the prescription to worry through one topic and not switch among “spheres of worry”
Slide 40 - GAD: Training in Normal Thinking Teach “normal thinking” as alternative behavior. What does one think about when not preoccupied with worry? Mindfulness of thinking states that are different from worry (e.g. daydreaming, experiencing, planning, enjoying) Sensory awareness training “Staying in the moment” Use of “worry times” Limited effects of exposure on valence/preference
Slide 41 - Attention ModificationTraining - GAD 29 treatment seeking patients Random assignment (train away vs. no train threat words) 8 sessions over 4 weeks Goal: Change attentional bias Change GAD symptoms Succeeded with both Between group effect size of .80 Least efficacy on worry (Amir et al., 2009, J Abn Psych)
Slide 42 - Attention Modification Training - GAD Randomized clinical trial GAD (N = 29) Stimuli: threatening or neutral words 50% of those in the active attention modification program were classified as responders (no longer meeting DSM diagnosis for GAD) vs. 13% in the control condition (Amir et al., 2009)
Slide 43 - New Directions Attentional training Mindfulness/emotional tolerance training Interoceptive exposure Integrative treatment
Slide 44 - GAD Interpersonal Roles Polarizing the relationship: the worry partner Improving couple’s problem-solving
Slide 45 - Conclusions Nice convergence of strategies in the field Need to convincingly beat relaxation training as a first step in care Need to confirm resilience of treatment to depression (but emergent finding across anxiety disorders) Room for improvement – to achieve high end-state functioning