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Slide 1 - Antioxidants
Slide 2 - Oxidation Chemical rx in which atoms lose electrons May result in free radical formation
Slide 3 - Structure of Atoms Atom: the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are composed of Nucleus – positively charged center portion of the atom Electrons – negatively charged particles surrounding the nucleus
Slide 4 - Oxidation Molecules are composed of atoms. During metabolic reactions, electrons can be transferred From the atoms of one molecule To the atoms of another molecule
Slide 5 - Oxidation
Slide 6 - Oxidation Oxidation: the loss of electrons from a molecule. Reduction: the gain of electrons by a molecule. Oxidation and reduction usually occur together as an exchange reaction.
Slide 7 - Oxidation Stable atoms contain an even number of paired electrons. Free radical: an atom that has lost an electron and is left with an unpaired electron. Free radicals are highly reactive and can cause damage to molecules in the cell.
Slide 8 - Free Radicals and Diseases
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Slide 10 - Antioxidants Substances that are able to neutralize reactive molecules and reduce oxidative damage Result of metabolic processes and environmental sources Vitamin C, Vitamin E, beta-carotene, Vitamin A, selenium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese
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Slide 12 - Vitamin E Functions: Anti-oxidant Guards against damage to membranes from oxidizing compounds Deficiency: Rare (premature infants under 3.5 pounds, people unable to absorb fat or metabolize fat properly Suppresses the immune system because vitamin E protects White Blood Cells
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Slide 14 - Vitamin E Toxicity: Rare Sources: Vegetable oils, nuts and green leafy vegetables, fortified cereals
Slide 15 - There's sweet news about hot cocoa Hot cocoa tops red wine and tea in antioxidants; may be healthier choice More antioxidants per cup than a similar serving of red wine or tea per serving basis, the antioxidant concentration in cocoa was the highest: It was almost 2 times stronger than red wine, 2-3 times stronger than green tea, and 4-5 times stronger than that of black tea New research underlines antioxidant activity in chocolate Vitamin E tocotrienol shows brain protection promise
Slide 16 - Vitamin C Functions Collagen Formation antioxidant reduce cancer risk helps absorb iron from food Reduces risk of colds????? probably not Linus Pauling’s study NutraIngredients
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Slide 18 - Vitamin C Deficiency: called scurvy poor formation of collagen in blood vessels weak vessels result in hemorrhages can be severe and result in lots of blood loss and death Toxicity: may result in kidney stones rebound scurvy Destruction of B12 Problems with acid/base balance
Slide 19 - Vitamin C: RDA 90/75 mg/day Foods rich in vitamin C: 1 cup fresh squeezed orange juice: 124 mg 1 cup canned o.j.: 84 mg Smoker’s RDA = +35 mg/day Some of vitamin C is sacrificed in reducing the oxidants of cigarette smoke Vitamin C intake offers protection against stomach cancer
Slide 20 - Beta-Carotene-provitamin Functions Weak antioxidant Enhance immune system Protect skin and eyes Deficiency/toxicity
Slide 21 - Beta-Carotene-provitamin No RDA Sources
Slide 22 - Vitamin A Functions Vision: helps with conversion of light energy to electrical energy in eye Cell differentiation-maintenance of linings: helps produce the CHO normally found in mucous Bone growth: helps with remodeling growing bones
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Slide 24 - Vitamin A Deficiency One year supply in fat and liver of most people: So deficiencies are rare Bone growth and remodeling problems shape changes Linings deteriorate GI tract: diarrhea Respiratory tract: infections urogenital tract: infections, kidney stones Impaired night vision and day vision
Slide 25 - Vitamin A Toxicities Bones: decalcification, joint pain Nervous system loss of appetite, irritability, muscle weakness Liver enlargement jaundice Blood: RBCs loose hemoglobin Bleeding induced easily
Slide 26 - Beta carotene and Vitamin A
Slide 27 - Vitamin A RDA= 700 RE for females; 900 RE for males. RE= Retinol Equivalent Retinol is the active form of vitamin A Other molecules can be metabolized to make Retinol, thus retinol equivalents e.g.: beta carotene can be modified to make retinol beta carotene is found in carrots and other deep orange and green vegetables 1 RE= 1 microgram of retinol 1 RE= 3.3 IU retinol 1 RE = 12 micrograms of beta carotene
Slide 28 - Selenium Functions Antioxidant system Thyroxine and immune function Deficiency Keshan disease Impaired immune response, cognitive function, muscle pain, wasting The Link between Selenium and Chemoprevention: A Case for Selenoproteins -- Diwadkar-Navsariwala and Diamond 134 (11): 2899 -- Journal of Nutrition
Slide 29 - Selenium – RDA 55 mg/day Sources Nuts Seafood Pasta
Slide 30 - Disorders related to Oxidation Cancer - Definitions Cancer: uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells Tumor: mass of cancer cells benign tumor (non-harmful, non-invasive) malignant tumor (harmful, invasive) Metastatic Cancer: spreading
Slide 31 - Cancer Facts US men have a 1 in 2 lifetime risk US women have a 1 in 3 lifetime risk 1,220,000 new malignant cancer cases in 2000 552,000 cancer deaths in 2000 Cancer the Top Killer for Those Under 85 – Jan 20, 2005
Slide 32 - Cancer Trends JNCI, 1999 1990-1996 All cancer incidence declined by 2.2% -4.1% males -0.5% females - Cancer deaths lowest in 7 decades
Slide 33 - US Mortality, 2000 Source: US Mortality Public Use Data Tape 2000, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002. 1. Heart Diseases 710,760 29.6 2. Cancer 553,091 23.0 3. Cerebrovascular diseases 167,661 7.0 4. Chronic lower respiratory diseases 122,009 5.1 5. Accidents (Unintentional injuries) 97,900 4.1 6. Diabetes mellitus 69,301 2.9 7. Influenza and Pneumonia 65,313 2.7 8. Alzheimer’s disease 49,558 2.1 Nephritis 37,251 1.5 10. Septicemia 31,224 1.3 Rank Cause of Death No. of deaths % of all deaths
Slide 34 - 2004 Estimated US Cancer Deaths* ONS=Other nervous system. *Excludes basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. Source: American Cancer Society, 2003. Men 285,900 Women 270,600 25% Lung & bronchus 15% Breast 10% Colon & rectum 6% Pancreas 6% Ovary 4% Leukemia 3% Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 3% Uterine corpus 2% Brain/ONS 2% Multiple myeloma Lung & bronchus 32% Prostate 10% Colon & rectum 10% Pancreas 5% Leukemia 5% Non-Hodgkin 4% lymphoma Esophagus 4% Liver/intrahepatic 3% bile duct Urinary bladder 3% Kidney 3%
Slide 35 - The Cancer Development Process Initiation Alterations in DNA minutes - days Causes: radiation chemical carcinogens viruses
Slide 36 - The Cancer Development Process Promotion “locking” DNA alterations failure of DNA repair mechanisms months - years
Slide 37 - The Cancer Development Process Cancer Progression Uncontrolled growth of cancer cells malignancy and metastasis weeks to years
Slide 38 - Cancer Development
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Slide 40 - Diet and Cancer Development Initiation Dietary sources of carcinogens aflatoxin mold from peanuts benzopyrene from charbroiled meats nitrosamine from cured meats AICR Press Corner - Recent News Protection phytochemicals antioxidants dietary fiber Study will assess effect of tomato oil on precancerous prostate changes
Slide 41 - Diet and Cancer Development Promotion Fat and PUFA excess alcohol Progression excess Fat and calories Alaska Journal of Commerce Online
Slide 42 - Diet and Cancer ACS 2000 One third of cancer deaths in US is due to cigarette smoking One third of cancer deaths in US is due to diet 5-10% of cancers are hereditary NutraIngredients
Slide 43 - 1999 ACS Dietary Guidelines Choose most of the foods you eat from plant sources. Five A DayHealthy fruit and veg compounds being lost in processing low in fat and calories high in folic acid, vitamin C, beta-carotene high in fiber high in phytochemicals ABC News: Turn to Tomatoes for Prostate Health - Health - Vitamin D May Lower Some Cancer Risk
Slide 44 - Trends in Consumption of Recommended Vegetable and Fruit Servings (5 or more) for Cancer Prevention, Adults 18 and Older, US, 1994-2000 * Includes fewer than 50 states and the District of Columbia. All other prevalences include the 50 states and District of Columbia. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001. Prevalence (%) 1994* 1996 1998 2000
Slide 45 - Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk factors Smoking Hypertension High LDL Obesity Sedentary life style Nutrition Notes: How to fight inflammation - Nutrition Notes -
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Slide 47 - CVD and Antioxidants Scavengers Donates electrons Reduction of inflammation Enhances immune system Reduction of blood coagulation
Slide 48 - Vision impairment Macular degeneration Promising results Cataracts Mixed results