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Published on : Mar 14, 2014
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Slide 1 - Antibodies and antigens Antibodies = immunoglobulins Antibodies bind antigens.
Slide 2 - 3 different kinds of antigen-binding molecules; Ig, TCR and MHC.
Slide 3 - ppt slide no 3 content not found
Slide 4 - Antibodies On the surface of B cells: Antigen receptors for activation of B cells. Secreted: Effector phase of humoral immunity. Cooperation with complement, phagocytes, mast cells and eosinophils.
Slide 5 - Distribution of secreted Ab Plasma Mucosal secretions Interstitial fluid Surface of immune effector cells
Slide 6 - Antiserum: Serum with specific ab. Titer: Reciproke of end point dilution. End point dilution: Highest dilution of serum that gives a positive reaction. Dilution: 1/100 1/200 1/400 1/800 Reaction: + + + − End point dilution: 1/400 Titer: 400
Slide 7 - Effects of antibodies: Neutralization of microbes or toxins Complement activation Opsonization Antibody dependent cytotoxicity Immediate hypersensitivity
Slide 8 - Antibodies are clonally distributed: Clone: Population of identical cells, derived from a single cell by cell division. Clonal distribution of abs: One clone makes only one ab, other clones make different abs. Allelic exclusion.
Slide 9 - Serum: Polyclonal Ab Myeloma tumors: Monoclonal Ab Hybridomas
Slide 10 - Detection of monoclonal bands by serum electrophoresis in agarose gel. + Application - Albumin γ globulin
Slide 11 - Hybridoma monoclonal antibodies
Slide 12 - Some advantages of monoclonal abs: Increased specificity Unlimited supply Standardized reagents; can compare results from different labs. Possible to immunize with impure antigens, e.g. whole cells.
Slide 13 - Structure of antibody molecules: H2L2 (1, 2 or 5; monomer, dimer or pentamer) (H: Heavy chain) (L: Light chain)
Slide 14 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:16 PM) © 2005 Elsevier
Slide 15 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:16 PM) © 2005 Elsevier Structure of an Ab light chain
Slide 16 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:16 PM) © 2005 Elsevier
Slide 17 - The immunoglobulin superfamily
Slide 18 - Proteolytic fragments of an IgG molecule
Slide 19 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:16 PM) © 2005 Elsevier (Rabbit)
Slide 20 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:16 PM) © 2005 Elsevier Hypervariable regions in Ab molecules Variability: No. different aa/Frequency of most common aa.
Slide 21 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:16 PM) © 2005 Elsevier Binding of antigen by an antibody’s hypervariable regions of VH and VL.
Slide 22 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:16 PM) © 2005 Elsevier Flexibility of antibody molecules
Slide 23 - Antibodies are divided in classes (isotypes) based on differences in heavy chains.
Slide 24 - Human Ig classes
Slide 25 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:16 PM) © 2005 Elsevier Membrane and secreted forms of Ig heavy chains.
Slide 26 - Two types of light chains: κ (kappa) λ (lambda)
Slide 27 - Synthesis of Ig: Rough endoplasmic reticulum Chaperones (calnexin, BiP) ensure proper folding Golgi complex
Slide 28 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:16 PM) © 2005 Elsevier Ig expression during B lymphocyte maturation.
Slide 29 - Antigens bound by Abs: Proteins Carbohydrates Nucleic acids Phospholipids Small chemicals
Slide 30 - Haptens: Small molecules that must be conjugated to carrier molecules (proteins) to initiate an immune response. They are antigenic (bind Ab) but not immunogenic (cannot by themselves induce an Ab response). Immunogens are macromolecules, and (of course) antigenic.
Slide 31 - Haptens and carriers (Bogen and Munthe) (Carrier molecule) (Hapten-carrier complex) (not) (to)
Slide 32 - Determinants (epitopes) Poly (multi) valent antigens Polyvalent antigens can be immunogenic for B cells without the help of T cells
Slide 33 - Nonoverlapping determinants Overlapping determinants Allosteric effects Neoantigenic determinants (result of postsynthetic modifications, such as proteolysis or phosphorylation)
Slide 34 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:16 PM) © 2005 Elsevier The nature of antigenic determinants
Slide 35 - Antibody-antigen binding: Noncovalent forces Electrostatic forces Hydrogen bonds van der Waals forces Hydrophobic interactions
Slide 36 - Avidity and valency of antibody-antigen interactions
Slide 37 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:26 PM) © 2005 Elsevier
Slide 38 - Bogen and Munthe Avidity Affinity
Slide 39 - ppt slide no 39 content not found
Slide 40 - Equilibrium dialysis
Slide 41 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:26 PM) © 2005 Elsevier Antigen-antibody complexes
Slide 42 - Three important characteristics of humoral immunity: Specificity Diversity Affinity maturation
Slide 43 - Specificity (distinction of similar antigens) Karl Landsteiner Meta-azoben-zene sulfonate Cross-reactions
Slide 44 - Diversity (specific binding of a large number of antigens). Affinity maturation (late abs and abs in secondary reactions bind better).
Slide 45 - Changes in antibody structure during humoral immune responses
Slide 46 - Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 4 January 2008 01:26 PM) © 2005 Elsevier
Slide 47 - Isotypes Allotypes Idiotypes
Slide 48 - Binding of two or more adjacent Fc portions is needed to trigger effector functions such as complement activation and phagocytosis.
Slide 49 - Effector functions often mediated by Fc portion. Effector functions are initiated by ab that has bound ag. Isotypes influence how microbes are attacked. Isotypes determine tissue distribution.