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Slide 1 - What!!! another patient with abdominal pain???? Midwest Pediatric Hospital Medicine Conference, 2013 Susan Maisel, MD & Allyson Boodram, MD
Slide 2 - Objectives Review the characteristics of chronic abdominal pain Differentiate functional from organic causes of abdominal pain Review current modalities for evalutaion, management/treatment of chronic abdominal pain Review predictive value of these modalities
Slide 3 - case Scenario
Slide 4 - Definitions Chronic Abdominal Pain: Pain of at least 3 months duration; clinical variation that includes time frame of 1-2 months Source:Hyams 1996.
Slide 5 - Recurrent Abdominal Pain: One of the most common recurrent pain syndromes in children. Classic definition based 4 criteria: Hx of at least 3 episodes of pain Pain that is severe enough to affect activities Episodes that occur over 3 months No known organic cause.
Slide 6 - Clinical Definitions Chronic Abdominal Pain: Long lasting, intermittent or constant that is functional or organic (disease) Functional Abdominal Pain: Abdominal Pain without evidence of disease/pathologic process. Can manifest with symptoms typical of functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, abdominal migraine or functional abdominal pain syndrome.
Slide 7 - The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of children with chronic abdominal pain recommend that: the term "recurrent abdominal pain" should not be used as a synonym for functional, psychological, or stress-related abdominal pain . Functional abdominal pain, which is the most common cause of chronic abdominal pain, is a specific diagnosis that must be distinguished from other causes of abdominal pain (eg, anatomic, infectious, inflammatory, metabolic) Source: AAP, 2005
Slide 8 - other causes Peptic ulcer H pylori Biliary dyskinesis Celiac IBD Abdominal migraine, IBS GER
Slide 9 - Limited but credible evidence of the existence of functional dyspepsia, IBS, and abdominal migraines in children Is there evidence that children with chronic abdominal pain have symptom patterns that can be categorized as functional versus organic?
Slide 10 - History When did it start? Document duration F – Concurrent stressful event in life O – Trauma or travel Where is it located and where does it go? F – Peri-umbilical or epigastric O – Well localized away from umbilicus
Slide 11 - How long does it last? F – Prolonged duration with no clear signs O – Variable; signs raise the ante What does the pain feel like? F – Vague, gradual onset, variable severity O – Isolated, sudden onset
Slide 12 - What makes the pain better? F – No relationship to interventions O – Sometimes medications or position change help What makes the pain worse? F – Reinforcement from parents Is the pain intermittent or constant F – Constant O - Intermittent
Slide 13 - Association with other signs or symptoms? F – Signs of anxiety (mottled skin, nail biting), family history of irritable bowel, migraines O – Association with hematachezia, fever, rash, weight loss, growth faltering, family history of ulcers or IBD
Slide 14 - What is the predictive value of the history? There are no studies that support the history is able to differentiate functional from organic disease Presence of headaches, joint pain, anorexia, vomiting, nausea, excessive gas and altered bowel symptoms may be more frequently associated with functional abdominal pain Presence of Red Flags may suggest a higher probability of organic disease and warrants further diagnostic evaluation
Slide 15 - What is the diagnostic value of the psychosocial history? The literature reviewed 3 domains: Life-Event Stress, Emotional/Behavioral Symptoms and Family functioning. There is no evidence on whether any of these domains influence symptom severity, course or response to treatment
Slide 16 - location, location,location
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Slide 18 - Differential of chronic abdominal Pain GI ConstipationParasitesLactose IntolPeptic DiseaseIBDGallstonesPancreatitisAllergy?H. pylori?Celiac Dis. GU UTIRenal StonesOvarianPID OTHER MedicationsHSPSickle CellLymphomaFam Med FeverPorphyriaLead PoisoningRheumatologic FUNCTIONAL Functional DyspepsiaIBSFAPFunctional Ab PainAbdominal Migraine
Slide 19 - Initial Evaluation Validate the symptoms and concerns of the patient and family Make sure the patient is safe: Organic pathology screen Obtain and review all prior testing Consider video if available - What’s reuired? Clear communication with nursing and ancillary staff (child life) regarding observation of patient behaviors and family dynamics. Importance of proper documentation for concerning observation. Parental/patient voice regarding evaluation
Slide 20 - Red Flags and red herrings Systemic signs: hematachezia, rash, weight loss, growth faltering, vomiting, diarrhea, persistent RLQ/RUQ pain, unexplained fever, evidence of GI blood loss, Historical clues: family history of ulcers or IBD Prolonged school absence Use of narcotic pain medication Positive or unusual exam findings
Slide 21 - diagnostic studies CBC ESR, CRP CMP, Amylase, Lipase, H. Pylori, Celiac TSH, T4 UA Imaging: Ultrasound, Abdominal/Pelvic CT/MR Procedures: Endoscopy
Slide 22 - what is the predictive value of laboratory tests? There is no evidence to evaluate the predictive value of blood tests There is no evidence to evaluate the predictive value of blood tests in the face of “Red Flags”
Slide 23 - What are the predictive values of other diagnostic tests? No evidence to suggest that abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds in the ABSENCE of Red Flags has a significant yield of organic disease There is little evidence to suggest that the use of endoscopy and biopsy in the ABSENCE of Red Flags has a significant yield of organic disease Insufficient evidence to suggest that esophageal pH monitoring in the ABSENCE of Red Flags has a significant yield of organic disease
Slide 24 - All Studies normalNow what?
Slide 25 - Treatment/management Delivery of diagnosis to families - clear, education of FAP; reassurance; emphasize that there is no seriouslife threatening process/condition; there may be resistance to a diagnosis of non organic disease; use simple language stressing that the pain is real despite lack of organic cause; families/patients resistant to a functional cause may be more likely to continue to have missed school days and somatic complaints
Slide 26 - Goals of Treatment/Management Primary goal - Return to normal function Secondary goal - Relief of symptoms
Slide 27 - Avoidance of reinforcement of pain behaviours Distraction, providing attention, rest, identifying triggers for pain Reassurance Education to the family Emphasize that there is no serious life threatening process/condition Primary goal - Return to normal function
Slide 28 - Secondary goal - Relief of symptoms Pharmacologic Cognitive Therapy Relaxation Massage/PT/OT/Exercise
Slide 29 - Useful Analogies HA Don’t use it - Lose it Christmas tree lights Worst Nightmare
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Slide 33 - what is the effectiveness of pharmacologic treatment? Through review of literature revealed a paucity of studies on pharmacological and dietary intervention, thus definitive statements regarding efficacy are limited. Evidence that treatment with peppermint oil for 2 weeks may provide benefit in children with IBS Inconclusive evidence of the benefit of H2 antagonists to treat dyspepsia Inconclusive evidence that fiber intake decreases the frequency of pain attacks for patients with chronic abdominal pain
Slide 34 - Inconclusive evidence that a lactose free diet decreases symptoms in children with chronic abdominal pain Limited data regarding efficacy of serotonin 2A antagonists in treatment of abdominal migraine
Slide 35 - Treatment/Management options Resuming normal daily life PT/OT for reconditioning Relaxation/Massage/Exercise Cognitive Therapy
Slide 36 - what is the effectiveness of Cognitive - behavioral therapy? Literature reviewed 3 domains of psychosocial history: life - event stress, child emotional / behavioral symptoms and family functioning. Life - Event Stress There is no evidence on whether this influences symptom severity, course, or response to treatment Emotional/Behavioral Symptoms There is evidence that patients with chronic abdominal pain have more symptoms of anxiety/depression than do healthy controls There is evidence that suggests the presence of anxiety, depression, or other behavior problems is NOT useful in distinguishing between functional abdominal pain and organic abdominal pain
Slide 37 - Family Functioning - There is evidence that parents of patients with recurrent abdominal pain have more symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization than do parents of community controld or parents of other pediatric patients There is also evidence that families of patients with recurrent abdominal pain do not differ from families of control or families of patients with acute illness in broad areas of functioning such as family cohesion, conflict and marital satisfaction
Slide 38 - Functional abdominal Pain (FAP) Uncommon under 5 females > males Real pain; not faking or malingering Pathogenesis abnormal bowel reactivity to physiologic stimuli (meal, gut distention, hormonal), noxious stressful stimuli (inflammatory procees), psychological stressful stimuli (parental seperation, anxiety) Leading to the development of visceral hyperalgesia FAP is a POSITIVE diagnosis and not a failure to the true cause of the pain
Slide 39 - Functional gastrointestinal disorders FGIDS Variable combination of chronic and/or recurrent symptoms that are not explained by biochemiacal or anatomical abnormalities. ROME Committee, 2009: Updates information on FGIDS for clinical and research Symptoms of chronic or recurrent abdominal pain in children where there is no identifiable structural, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic or metabolic cause. Symptoms that occur once a week for a druation of at least 2 months
Slide 40 - Epidemiology of Chronic Abdominal Pain in children One of the most common complaints in children and adolescents 13% of Middle School aged; 17% of High School aged children experience weekly abdominal pain (Hyams JS et al J Pediatr. 1996) Functional Abdominal Pain was found in 15% of school aged children (Youssef NN. Clinical Pediatrics 2007) 10-15% of school age children seek help
Slide 41 - 10-15% more have symptoms but never seek medical attention 10% have an organic cause Females>males Higher in > 10 years old Prevalence increases during school, not vacations
Slide 42 - Myths Functional Abdominal Pain (FAP) is NOT strictly associated with: Overachiever Intellect Perfecionist Constant worrier Important to not be biased and have a broader differential when considering FAP
Slide 43 - Case 1 CC: SS is a 14 y.o F that presents for evaluation of chronic abdominal pain that has been present for 4months. Her pain is localized to the periumbilical region, although occasionally she describes radiation to the lower left and right quadrants. She rates her pain as 7/10. She states that it seems to be worse in the morning but can present at any time throughout the day. There are no specific triggers such as diet or activity; and she denies any alleviating or aggrevating factors. she reports no change in appetite or bowel habits, but she has had episodes of non bilious/non bloody emesis intermittently since onset of pain. She has also had a 10lb weight loss since onset of her pain. PMHx: unremarkable; PSurgHx: none Social: Lives with mom, father is not consistently involved but she does see him. Has a good relationship with her mother. She is the only child. Described as a straight A student and popular amongst her peers; involved in extra curricular activities through school, including: dance, soccer, track and debate. Since onset of pain she has missed 1-2 days of school a week and has not been able to participate in her usual activities. Mother is very concerned about her and wants an answer to what is causing her abdominal pain.
Slide 44 - References The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) guidelines, AAP 2005 Eccleston C, Yorke L, Morley S, Williams AC, Mastroyannopoulou K. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003 Recurrent abdominal pain: symptom subtypes based on the Rome II Criteria for pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders; Walker LS, Lipani TA, Greene JW, Caines K, Stutts J, Polk DB, Caplan A, Rasquin-Weber, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004 Feb; 38(2):187-91. Chronic abdominal Pain in Children; Pediatrics 2005; 115:3 812-815
Slide 45 - Weydert JA, Ball TM, Davis MF. Systematic review of treatments for recurrent abdominal pain. Pediatrics. 2003; Hyams JS, Burke G, Davis PM, Rzepski B, Andrulonis P. Abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents: a community-based study. J Pediatr. 1996;129:220–226 Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal disorders; Nutr Clin Pract 2008; 23:3 268-274