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Slide 1 - Eating disorders Among Adolescents:Just dieting or Something More? Sheryl Ryan, MD Chief, Section of Adolescent Medicine Department of Pediatrics Yale School of Medicine 1
Slide 2 - Objectives To provide a brief overview of etiology and risk factors for developing eating disorders. To learn how to approach and manage weight loss and disordered eating in the primary care setting. To understand both out-patient and in-patient strategies to manage the spectrum of eating disorders. 2
Slide 3 - Disclosure Speaker’s Bureau – Merck Pharmaceuticals 3
Slide 4 - 4
Slide 5 - 5
Slide 6 - Background U.S. culture obsessed with appearance, weight loss, dieting Media images display models and celebrities with unattainable levels of thinness Importance of thinness in our society is an unavoidable message to developing adolescents At the same time, percentage of adolescents with obesity has tripled in past two decades 6
Slide 7 - Prevalence of Weight-Related Behaviors Project EAT: Eating among middle school teens Body dissatisfaction: girls 46%; boys 26% Desire to weigh less: 70%girls, 21% boys Current weight loss attempts: 45% girls, 21% boys Girls – 57% unhealthy methods; 12% extreme Boys – 33% unhealthy; 5% extreme 5th/6th grade Girl Scouts: 29% dieting, 8% unhealthy practices Neumark-Sztainer D et. al. Arch Ped Adol Med 156:171, 2002. 7
Slide 8 - Spectrum of Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Eating disorder NOS Disordered eating Binge eating disorder 8
Slide 9 - Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Disordered eating Unhealthy dieting Binge eating disorder Obesity Spectrum of Weight –Related Disorders 9
Slide 10 - Eating Disorders: Epidemiology Age of onset: Bimodal 14 and 18 years Sex ratio: Female to male ratio 10:1 Prevalence: Anorexia nervosa: lifetime - .9% females; .3% males Bulimia nervosa: lifetime prevalence – 1-3% females ED – NOS : lifetime – 3-5% females BED: 3.5% females; 2% males Familial pattern: More common in sisters and mothers of those with disorder Complications: Mortality rates between 5 and 15% Disordered eating is third most common chronic illness among adolescent girls after obesity and asthma 10
Slide 11 - Eating Disorders: Etiology Thought of as a biopsychosocial disorder. Vulnerabilities in three spheres: Individual/personal Family Socio- environmental 11
Slide 12 - Etiology Family Family/School GENETIC Society 12
Slide 13 - Etiology Longitudinal studies looking at eating behaviors in early childhood. History of food refusal in early childhood. Higher incidence of eating problems in later childhood “Early childhood feeding problems” Higher incidence of disordered eating 8 -10 year later ? Sets the stage for later problems Weight and body image concerns develop prior to puberty Puberty is critical period for development of disordered eating in girls -precipitant? 13
Slide 14 - Role of PANDAS Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus Clinical criteria Presence of OCD or tic disorder Pediatric onset – (3 yrs. – puberty) Episodic course of symptoms Association with streptococcal infection Associated with hyperactivity, choreiform movements Described in 1998 by Saved, Leonard, Garvey *Svedo, SE. American J of Psychiatry 155:264-271, 1998. 14
Slide 15 - Assessment in the Primary Care Setting 15
Slide 16 - When should you suspect an eating disorder? Unexplained weight loss Any weight loss or failure to gain expected weight in a child is concerning! Change in eating patterns Progressive change from high caloric density foods to lower caloric; vegetarianism/veganism, desire to “eat healthier”; frank restriction Change in eating behaviors, focus on food, rituals Change in activity patterns, exercise Lack of concern by teen/child about emaciation 16
Slide 17 - Atypical Presentation in Children and Adolescents More often males Appears in context of stressful family or life events More likely to have co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses Anxiety, OCD, depression Less likely to have body image disturbances They agree that they are thin Weight loss is unexpected: "eating healthy” Leads to confusion about why parents are concerned 17
Slide 18 - Atypical Presentation in Children and Adolescents Can often lead to delay in diagnosis Seen as a “passing phase” May not have lost amount of weight to meet strict criteria Any weight loss should be concerning given normal expectations for weight gain and growth Interruption of normal pubertal processes may lead to irreversible stunting Changes in brain volumes (MRI); bone accretion 18
Slide 19 - 19
Slide 20 - Eating Disorders:Presenting symptoms Physical symptoms reflect degree of malnutrition Weight Loss or inability to maintain normal weight Amenorrhea - virtually 100% Constipation Abdominal pain Fatigue Cold intolerance Light-headedness Signs of cognitive blunting 20
Slide 21 - Eating disorders: Presenting Physical Signs Cachexia, muscle wasting Hypotension, hypothermia, bradycardia Acrocyanosis Dry skin, or lanugo-type hair Edema Systolic murmur Short stature Breast atrophy Lack of signs indicating other causes to wt. loss Enamel loss and salivary gland enlargement with frequent purging 21
Slide 22 - Eating Disorders: Diagnosis Comprehensive history and PE will guide w/u Limit laboratory studies on basis of Histoy and PE Consider differential diagnoses: Medical Conditions Psychiatric Utilize DMS-IV Criteria when appropriate Consider alternate classifications 22
Slide 23 - Differential Diagnoses Medical Conditions GI - Inflammatory bowel disease, malabsorption Endocrine DM, Addison’s, thyroid disease Malignancies CNS lesions tumors, intracranial infections, increased ICP, Miscellaneous - early pregnancy, sarcoidosis, cystic fibrosis Chronic infections (TB, HIV) Psychiatric Disorders Mood disorders, OCD, Body dysmorphic disorder, Substance use disorders, Psychosis 23
Slide 24 - DSM-IV Criteria in Children? To what extent does current system capture the developmental aspects and atypical presentations seen in children and adolescents? Too restrictive Is diagnosis of EDNOS useful and does it reflect a partial syndrome that may progress to full-blown AN/BN later? Subthreshold versus truly atypical Are there other entities that should be included in classification system for children? 24
Slide 25 - Anorexia Nervosa – DSM-IV Refusal to maintain weight within a normal range for ht and age - >85%IBW Fear of gaining weight Severe body image disturbance Image is main measure of self-worth, denial of seriousness of illness Amenorrhea (greater than three cycles Two subtypes – restrictive and binge-eating/purging 25
Slide 26 - Anorexia Nervosa: Cardinal Features Self-induced weight loss Psychological disturbance Distorted body image Fear of obesity Secondary physiological abnormalities Result of malnutrition 26
Slide 27 - Bulimia Nervosa: DSM IV Criteria Recurrent episodes of binge eating Recurrent episodes of compensatory behaviors after binge episodes Episodes have occurred at least twice weekly for three months Self-evaluation is based on body weight or shape Does not occur in presence of AN Purging and non-purging types 27
Slide 28 - Binge Eating Disorder Recurrent episodes of binge eating Eating more rapidly than usual Eating until uncomfortably full Eating when not physically hungry Eating alone because of embarrassment Feeling disgusted, depressed, or guilty Marked distress during episodes of binges Occurs at least twice a week for 6 months No compensatory behaviors after binge 28
Slide 29 - Great Ormond Street Classification* Anorexia nervosa Determined wt. loss, abnormal cognitions of and morbid preoccupation with weight or shape Bulimia nervosa Recurrent binges/purges, lack of control, morbid preoccupation with weight or shape Food avoidance emotional disorder Selective eating disorder Functional dysphagia Pervasive refusal syndrome *Nicholls D, Int J Eat Disorders 28:317-324, 2000 29
Slide 30 - Eating Disorders:Diagnosis and Assessment Laboratory Assessment CBC and platelets, ESR, BUN, CR, electrolytes, LFTs, Ca, phosphate, Mg, albumin, T4, TSH, ECG Consider bone mineral density if amenorrheic for > 1 year Nutritional Assessment - 24 hour recall, %IBW – utilize BMI 50%ile for age (~BMI <16) Recent losses or gains Can determine degree of malnutrition 30
Slide 31 - Eating Disorders: Complications Cardiac impairment MVP, QT prolongation, CHF Osteoporosis Gastrointestinal Some specific to purging, slowed motility, nausea/bloating Endocrine/Metabolic Neurological – cognitive Dental 31
Slide 32 - Management Requires a multidisciplinary team approach Medical - manage medical concerns, monitor wt., coordinate team Nutritional - education, nutrition/dietary plans and options, caloric requirements Mental health – individual and family needs, focus on affective issues, medication management School personnel – assist with reintegrating into more normal functioning 32
Slide 33 - Mental Health Treatment Individual therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy has best outcomes Limited data on efficacy Tries to teach relation between thoughts and feelings and behavior; recognize how related to disordered eating Key role of family therapy, particularly younger teens most effective Explicit family involvement in day-to-day treatment No evidence for adding psychotropics in absence of co-morbid mental health conditions 33
Slide 34 - When to Admit?Indications for Hospitalization Hypovolemia/ hypotension Severe malnutrition - <75% IBW Cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias, prolonged QT interval Bradycardia <45 beats/minute Electrolyte disturbance – hypokalemia, hypoglycemia Rapid weight loss despite interventions Intractable binge-purge episodes Suicidal thoughts or gestures Highly dysfunctional or abusive family Failure of outpatient therapy 34
Slide 35 - Protocol-Based In-Patient Treatment Creating a Therapeutic In-Patient Milieu Areas of focus for management Weight gain expectations Supervised eating Activity restriction Limitation on family/peer interactions Include all social networks Psychiatric consultation Parent education 35
Slide 36 - Anorexia Nervosa: Prognosis Mortality – 10 years – 6.6% Range 0-18% Morbidity – 10- 15 year f/u 75% full recovery 86% partial recovery May still have had some psychosocial impairment Predictors of poor outcomes Later age of diagnosis, longer duration, lower minimal weight, low-self-esteem 25 – 55% of anorexic patients may become bulimic 36
Slide 37 - Advice for Families Have patience with the process of treatment/recovery Prepare for a marathon, not a 50 yd. dash Avoid blaming Avoid power struggles over food Avoid comments about weight and appearance Avoid unreasonable preparations to purchase or prepare special foods Get support – individual or couples therapy, support groups Get rid of the scale! Pay attention to siblings 37
Slide 38 - Questions? 38
Slide 39 - Suggestions for Addressing Challenges Talk with professionals from different fields Listen and be open to modifying your own approach Read literature from outside your discipline Foster collaborative relationships Gather perspectives from teens and their families Address the broad spectrum or weight-related disorders In program evaluation, make sure that program has not led to inadvertent increase in other behaviors Work with parents to establish healthy eating and activity patterns within families Incorporate environmental approaches in interventions From: Neumark-Sztainer D, AM:Stars, Vol. 14, 2003. 39
Slide 40 - In-patient Medical Monitoring Medical/Fluid status Initial labs Electrolytes prn, q week when stable For refeeding - divalents q day for initial 3 days Urine S.G.s – initially and q AM Orthostatic VSs – baseline; then prn Pulse for full 60 seconds; 2 minutes between lying and standing P and BP. Cardiac monitoring Strict bed rest vs. on basis of wt. and lab values 40
Slide 41 - Protocol-Based Management Weight expectations Baseline weight Close input with nutritionist Determine exchanges, kcals, refeeding kcals, Help determine types of foods to be eaten (no diet/lite), no outside food Strict adherence to weighing procedure Gown, following full void, back to scale, weight not provided to patient Range of weight expected: 2 kgs/week .2-.3 kgs or .4-.5 lbs/week ***Strategies if weight goal not met: Plateauing of privileges; adding supplements 2 first day/ 3 second day/ 4 third day 41
Slide 42 - Mental Health Input Psychiatric consultation Baseline – determine diagnosis, co-morbidities Assist with psychotropic medications if necessary; recommendations for range of in-patient or out-pt mental health care/referral Limited time for therapy Generally done in longer term inpatient or outpatient settings Family education Regular meetings with team Recommendations for family therapy 42
Slide 43 - Protocol-Based Management Eating Behaviors Supervised Time allotted for meals – 30 minutes Supplements provided to meals not eaten One can ensure if meals not eaten with 30’ Supplements given on basis of kcals of food not eaten NG tube if Ensure amounts not with 20’ Bed rest for 1 hour after each meal – no BR “Abnormal” eating behaviors discouraged when possible 43
Slide 44 - Protocol-Based Management Activity Limitations Baseline is generally best rest, no BR if medically unstable Liberalize depending upon VS stability, weight increase Bed rest Room rest – SITTING in chair/bed; no standing, exercising, showering limited to 10 minutes Additional activity allowed with weight increases 44
Slide 45 - Protocol-Based Management Social interaction limitations Outside visitation 2 hours with parents; no parental lying-in; Increase to visits with siblings, peers Limits on outside contacts Phone, cell phone, texting Internet Passes allowed as patient moves through protocol – off ward, outside hospital 45