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Slide 1 - Animal Testing Alternatives:Finding The Information You NeedMyra E. Shields, Senior TrainerBIOSIS
Slide 2 - BIOSIS Databases Biological AbstractsBiological Abstracts/RRM(Reports, Reviews & Meetings)BIOSIS PreviewsZoological Record
Slide 3 - Legal Responsibility Animal Welfare Act as Amended (7 USC, 2131-2156) in the United States Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, licensed by the Home Office, UK The EU Treaty of Rome
Slide 4 - Ethical or Social Responsibility Change to non-animals Make procedures pain free Answer the questions… Should animals be used? When can animals be used? How should animals be used?
Slide 5 - Economic Responsibility Expense of animal use Non-animal models can be cheaper to use Non-animal models can increase number of compounds being tested
Slide 6 - Scientific Responsibility Currency in area of research Awareness of research Reduce duplication Computer structure allows more compounds to be screened Less painful and invasive procedures Awareness of new procedures
Slide 7 - The 3Rs:Reduction, Refinement, Replacement “Reduction alternatives – methods for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals in scientific procedures, or for obtaining more information from the same number of animals. Refinement alternatives – methods which alleviate or minimize potential pain, suffering and distress, and which enhance animal well-being. Replacement alternatives – methods which permit a given purpose to be achieved without conducting experiments or other scientific procedures on animals.”
Slide 8 - Problems with Compliance Several problems can make compliance with the regulations difficult: Primary research does not indicate a reduction or refinement method. Not all of the information available is indexed to 3R compliance. Multiple sources need to be included in a comprehensive search. Researchers or end users themselves are doing the preliminary data gathering.
Slide 9 - How Does BIOSIS Fit?
Slide 10 - Coverage Literature types: Patents Meetings and conferences Books Journals (international coverage)
Slide 11 - Coverage Traditional areas: Molecular biology, Botany, Zoology, Ecology and the Environment, Microbiology Interdisciplinary areas: Experimental, Clinical and Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Genetics, Agriculture and Nutrition, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Public Health Related areas: Methods and Instrumentation MethodsBASE
Slide 12 - Indexing A literature search should use a 2-stage process: General terms for alternatives in conjunction with disease or subject area. Specific searches on models, procedures, etc. There are two ways to search using relational indexing: Maximum retrieval for preliminary information gathering Maximum relevancy for refining the search to specific areas of research
Slide 13 - Searching for AlternativesHerpes Search Evaluate an antiviral (ganciclovir) against herpesviridae
Slide 14 - Searching for Alternatives General Search (Maximum Retrieval) herpes?/DE,TI antivir?/DE,TI (animal model not (rat or muridae))/DE,TI
Slide 15 - Antiviral effect of antivirus capsule containing Chinese medicinal herbs on guinea pig model of genital herpes and cell culture. Author: Fan Ruiqiang(a); Li Hongyi(a); Xie Changcai(a); et al Author Address: (a)Department of Dermatology, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of T C M, Guangzhou, 510120**China Journal: Zhonghua Pifuke Zazhi   34 ( 3 ): p 198-201 June, 2001 Medium: print ISSN: 0412-4030 Document Type: Article Record Type: Abstract Language: Chinese; Non-English  Summary Language: Chinese; English Abstract: Objective: To study the therapeutic mechanism of the antivirus capsule containing Chinese herbs against genital herpes. Methods: The female guinea pig GH models were treated with …Descriptors: Major Concepts: Infection; Reproductive System (Reproduction) Biosystematic Names: Caviidae--Rodentia, Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Animalia; Herpesviridae --Animal Viruses, Viruses, Microorganisms Organisms: guinea pig (Caviidae)--animal model; herpes simplex virus-2 (Herpesviridae)--pathogen Organisms: Parts Etc.: vagina--reproductive system; vulva--reproductive system Biosystematic Classification (super Taxa): Animal Viruses; Animals; Chordates; Mammals; Microorganisms; Nonhuman Mammals; Nonhuman Vertebrates; Rodents; Vertebrates; Viruses Diseases: genital herpes--reproductive system disease, viral disease  Chemicals & Biochemicals:   Chinese medicinal herbs--antiviral activity; acychovir--antiviral-drug Methods & Equipment: antivirus capsule--drug delivery method, therapeutic method; cell culture --culture method Alternate Indexing: Herpes Genitalis (MeSH) Concept Codes: 12512 Pathology, General and Miscellaneous-Therapy (1971- )  16504 Reproductive System-Physiology and Biochemistry 16506 Reproductive System-Pathology 32500 Tissue Culture, Apparatus, Methods and Media 33506 Virology-Animal Host Viruses  36006 Medical and Clinical Microbiology-Virology  38506 Chemotherapy-Antiviral Agents Biosystematic Codes:   02612 Herpesviridae (1993- ) 86300 Caviidae
Slide 16 - Searching for Alternatives Specific Search (Maximum Relevancy) Searching for herpesviridae where the rabbit (leporidae) is used as the animal model and ganciclovir is the antiviral drug BC=herpesviridae or BC=02612((rabbit or leporidae)(s)animal model)/OI(ganciclovir or cymevene(s)antiviral)/SY (or NA) OR use the registry number 82410-32-0
Slide 17 - Scleral plug of biodegradable polymers containing ganciclovir for experimental cytomegalovirus retinitis. Author: Sakurai Eiji(a); Matsuda Yoshito; Ozeki Hironori; Kunou Noriyuki; Nakajima Katsuhisa; Ogura Yuichiro Author Address: (a)Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya City University Medical School, 1-Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601:**Japan Journal: IOVS   42 ( 9 ): p 2043-2048 August, 2001 Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of a biodegradable scleral plug containing ganciclovir (GCV) in a rabbit model of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis. METHODS: To develop a rabbit model for HCMV retinitis, HCMV solution was injected once into the vitreous cavity of pigmented rabbits.... CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that sustained release of GCV into the vitreous cavity with biodegradable scleral plugs was effective for the treatment of experimentally induced HCMV retinitis in rabbits. Registry Numbers: 82410-32-0: GANCICLOVIR Descriptors: Major Concepts: Infection; Pharmacology; Sense Organs (Sensory Reception) Biosystematic Names: Herpesviridae--Animal Viruses, Viruses, Microorganisms; Leporidae-- Lagomorpha, Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Animalia Organisms: cytomegalovirus (Herpesviridae)--pathogen; rabbit (Leporidae)--animal model, host Organisms: Parts Etc.: eyes--sensory system; vitreous cavity--sensory system Biosystematic Classification (super Taxa): Animal Viruses; Animals; Chordates; Lagomorphs; Mammals; Microorganisms; Nonhuman Mammals; Nonhuman Vertebrates; Vertebrates; Viruses Diseases: cytomegalovirus retinitis--eye disease, viral disease  Chemicals & Biochemicals:   ganciclovir--antiviral-drug, biodegradable scleral plug, sustained release  Miscellaneous Terms:   vitreoretinal inflammation Alternate Indexing: Cytomegalovirus Retinitis (MeSH) Concept Codes: 10062 Biochemical Studies-Nucleic Acids, Purines and Pyrimidines 12512 Pathology, General and Miscellaneous-Therapy (1971- ) 20004 Sense Organs, Associated Structures and Functions-Physiology and Biochemistry 20006 Sense Organs, Associated Structures and Functions-Pathology 22002 Pharmacology-General 33506 Virology-Animal Host Viruses 36006 Medical and Clinical Microbiology-Virology 38506 Chemotherapy-Antiviral Agents Biosystematic Codes:   02612 Herpesviridae (1993- ) 86040 Leporidae
Slide 18 - Searching for Alternatives Specific Search (Maximum Relevancy) Searching for an in-vitro or cell culture as a replacement: CC=32600 In Vitro Studies, Cellular and Sub Cell or CC=32500 Tissue Culture, Apparatus, Methods & MediaBC=02612 or BC=herpesviridae(ganciclovir and antiviral)/SY (or NA)
Slide 19 - Budding yeast as a screening tool for discovery of nucleoside analogs for use in HSV-1 TK suicide-gene therapy. Author: Wera S; Degreve B; Balzarini J; De Clercq E; Thevelein J M; Neyts J(a) Author Address: (a)Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000, Leuven**Belgium Journal: Biotechniques   27 ( 4 ): p 772-777 Oct., 1999 ISSN: 0736-6205 Document Type: Article Record Type: Abstract Language: English  Summary Language: English Abstract: We present a fast, convenient and inexpensive method that allows the automated, large-scale screening of chemical libraries for compounds that are converted by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)… The method may also be used as a tool to selectively suppress or arrest the growth of one population of yeast out of mixed yeast cell cultures. Registry Numbers: 59277-89-3: ACYCLOVIR; 59277-89-3: ZOVIRAX; 82410-32-0: GANCICLOVIR; 127759-89-1: LOBUCAVIR; 39809-25-1: PENCICLOVIR; 77181-69-2: SORIVUDINE; 9002-06-6: THYMIDINE KINASE Descriptors: Major Concepts: Molecular Genetics (Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics); Methods and Techniques; Pharmacology Biosystematic Names: Ascomycetes--Fungi, Plantae; Herpesviridae--Animal Viruses, Viruses, Microorganisms Organisms: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ascomycetes); herpes simplex virus type-1 {HSV-1} (Herpesviridae) Biosystematic Classification (super Taxa): Animal Viruses; Fungi; Microorganisms; Nonvascular Plants; Plants; Viruses  Chemicals & Biochemicals:   IVDU--antiviral-drug; acyclovir {Zovirax}--Glaxo Wellcome, antiviral-drug; ara-T--Sigma, antiviral-drug; brivudin--antiviral-drug; ganciclovir { Cymevene}--Sarva Syntex, antiviral-drug; lobucavir--Bristol Myers Squibb, antiviral-drug; penciclovir--SmithKline Beecham, antiviral-drug; sorivudine--Yamasa Shoyu, antiviral-drug; thymidine kinase {TK}; herpes simplex virus TK gene (Herpesviridae) Methods & Equipment: gene cloning--Recombinant DNA Technology, genetic method; gene therapy-- recombinant gene expression applications, therapeutic method; yeast culture--cell culture techniques, culture method Concept Codes: 31500 Genetics of Bacteria and Viruses 02504 Cytology and Cytochemistry-Plant 10062 Biochemical Studies-Nucleic Acids, Purines and Pyrimidines 38506 Chemotherapy-Antiviral Agents 32500 Tissue Culture, Apparatus, Methods and Media 12512 Pathology, General and Miscellaneous-Therapy (1971- ) Biosystematic Codes:   02612 Herpesviridae (1993- ) 15100 Ascomycetes
Slide 20 - Searching for Alternatives Searching for reduction: CC=04500 Mathematical Biology Computational Biology or Computer Applications or Mathematical Biology or (Models and Simulations) or (Methods and Techniques)/MC
Slide 21 - The cost-effectiveness of preventing AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Author: Freedberg Kenneth A(a); Scharfstein Julie A; Seage Geroge R III; Losina Elena; Weinstein Milton C; Craven Donald E; Paltiel A David Author Address: (a)Clin. Economics Res. Unit, Boston Med. Cent., 91E Concord St., Suite 200, Boston, MA 02118**USA Journal: JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association)   279 ( 2 ): p 130-136 Jan. 14, 1998 ISSN: 0098-7484 Abstract: Context.-Multiple options are now available for prophylaxis of opportunistic infections related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). … Conclusions.-The cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis against HIV-related opportunistic infections varies widely, but prophylaxis against PCP or toxoplasmosis and against MAC delivers the greatest comparative value. In an era of limited resources, these results can be used to set priorities and explore new alternatives for improving HIV patient care. Registry Numbers: 83905-01-5: AZITHROMYCIN; 72559-06-9: RIFABUTIN; 82410-32-0: GANCICLOVIR; 8064-90-2: Descriptors: Major Concepts: Economics; Infection; Models and Simulations (Computational Biology); Pharmacology Biosystematic Names: Herpesviridae--Animal Viruses, Viruses, Microorganisms; Hominidae--Primates , Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Animalia; Mycobacteriaceae--Mycobacteria, Actinomycetes and Related Organisms, Eubacteria, Bacteria, Microorganisms; Retroviridae--Animal Viruses, Viruses, Microorganisms; Sporozoa--Protozoa, Invertebrata, Animalia Organisms: cytomegalovirus (Herpesviridae)--pathogen; human (Hominidae)--host; human immunodeficiency virus {HIV} (Retroviridae)--pathogen; Mycobacterium-avium (Mycobacteriaceae)--pathogen; Pneumocystis-carinii (Sporozoa)--parasite Biosystematic Classification (super Taxa): Animal Viruses; Animals; Bacteria; Chordates; Eubacteria; Humans; Invertebrates; Mammals; Microorganisms; Primates; Protozoans; Vertebrates; Viruses Diseases: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome {AIDS}--immune system disease; cytomegalovirus infection--viral disease; fungal infection--fungal disease ; toxoplasmosis--parasitic disease; Mycobacterium avium complex infection --bacterial disease; Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia--parasitic disease  Chemicals & Biochemicals:   azithromycin--antibacterial-drug; ganciclovir--antiviral-drug; rifabutin --antibacterial-drug; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole--antiparasitic-drug  Miscellaneous Terms:   prophylaxis cost-effectiveness; Markov simulation model Concept Codes: 38502 Chemotherapy-General; Methods; Metabolism 04500 Mathematical Biology and Statistical Methods 12512 Pathology, General and Miscellaneous-Therapy (1971- ) 16001 Respiratory System-General; Methods 22002 Pharmacology-General  36001 Medical and Clinical Microbiology-General; Methods and Techniques  60502 Parasitology-General Biosystematic Codes:   02612 Herpesviridae (1993- )
Slide 22 - Searching for Alternatives Specific Search (Maximum Relevancy) Searching for a rabbit care as a refinement topic CC=28002 Laboratory Animal CareCC=2650? Animal HusbandryAnimal Care/MC(rabbit or leporidae)/OI or ((rabbit or leporidae) and animal model)/OI
Slide 23 - Hip dysplasia in rabbits: Association with nest box flooring. Author: Owiny James R(a); Vandewoude Sue; Painter J Todd; Norrdin Robert W; Veeramachaneni D N Rao Author Address: (a)Johns Hopkins University, 720 Rutland Avenue, 459 Ross Research Building, Baltimore, MD, 21208**USA Journal: Comparative Medicine (Memphis)   51 ( 1 ): p 85-88 February, 2001 Medium: print ISSN: 1532-0820 Document Type: Article Record Type: Abstract Language: English  Summary Language: English Abstract: Purpose: To study etiologic aspects of hip dysplasia in a colony of Dutch-belted rabbits. Methods: Rabbits used in the study were part of a reproductive toxicologic study … Conclusions: Provision of non-slippery flooring during the postnatal period is critical in preventing development of hip dysplasia in rabbits. Hip dysplasia resulted in significant musculoskeletal changes, but not abnormal neurologic development. Descriptors: Major Concepts: Animal Care; Skeletal System (Movement and Support) Biosystematic Names: Leporidae--Lagomorpha, Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Animalia Organisms: rabbit (Leporidae)--animal model, breed-Dutch-Belted, juvenile Biosystematic Classification (super Taxa): Animals; Chordates; Lagomorphs; Mammals; Nonhuman Mammals; Nonhuman Vertebrates; Vertebrates Diseases: hip dysplasia--animal model, joint disease  Miscellaneous Terms:   care conditions--flooring; nest box flooring Concept Codes: 28002 Laboratory Animals-General (1970- ) 18004 Bones, Joints, Fasciae, Connective and Adipose Tissue-Physiology and Biochemistry  18006 Bones, Joints, Fasciae, Connective and Adipose Tissue-Pathology Biosystematic Codes:   86040 Leporidae
Slide 24 - What’s New at BIOSIS
Slide 25 - Important Links