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Slide 1 - Anesthesia, Analgesia, Anxiolysis, Amnesia, And so on… Ivy Pointer, M.D Pediatric Critical Care Fellow UNC Department of Anesthesiology
Slide 2 - Overview Role of sedation in critical care Elements of sedation Levels of sedation Choosing a sedation plan Choosing the right drug Preventative medicine
Slide 3 - Sedation in Critical Care Medical illness Post-operative care Diagnostic imaging Invasive procedures Mechanical ventilation
Slide 4 - Elements of Sedation Anesthesia Analgesia Anxiolysis Amnesia
Slide 5 - Anesthesia Definition Loss of sensation & loss of consciousness Examples (Intravenous anesthetics) Etomidate Ketamine Propofol Thiopental
Slide 6 - Analgesia Definition Inability to sense pain Examples Non-sedating Analgesics Lidocaine/L.M.X. 4 Acetaminophen NSAIDs (Ibuprofen, Ketorolac) Sedating Analgesics Narcotics (Fentanyl, Morphine, Oxycodone, Methadone) Ketamine
Slide 7 - Anxiolytics Definition Relief of apprehension, fear, and/or agitation Examples Benzodiazepines (Midazolam, Lorazepam, Diazepam) Chloral Hydrate
Slide 8 - Amnestics Definition Loss of memory, inability to recall events Examples Benzodiazepine Ketamine
Slide 9 - Levels of Sedation Awake Moderate Sedation Deep Sedation General Anesthesia
Slide 10 - Moderate Sedation Purposeful response to verbal stimulation Airway patent Spontaneous ventilation adequate Cardiovascular function unaffected
Slide 11 - Deep Sedation Difficult to arouse Purposeful response only to painful stimulation Airway may be obstructed Spontaneous ventilation may be impaired Cardiovascular function usually unaffected
Slide 12 - General Anesthesia Loss of consciousness Positive pressure ventilation Cardiovascular function may be affected
Slide 13 - Choosing a Sedation Plan Remember mnemonic AMPLE!! A llergies M edications P ast Medical History L ast Meal E vents leading to sedation
Slide 14 - Allergies Drug allergies Environmental allergies Egg & soy allergy no Propofol Contrast allergies
Slide 15 - Medications Knowing current medications & therapeutic interventions can help tailor your sedation plan… Sedatives already being used Vasoactive medications Neuromuscular blockers Respiratory medications Hemofiltration/dialysis And so on…
Slide 16 - Past Medical History Know current patient problem list and significant past medical/surgical history Respiratory (hypoxia, pneumothorax) Cardiovascular (hypotension, myocardial dysfunction) Neurologic (increased ICP, seizure disorder) Hepatic/Renal failure
Slide 17 - Past Medical History Past history of sedation Medications used in the past Prior adverse events with sedation Ability to manage airway (Pierre Robin, croup, mediastinal mass, prior radiation, asthma) Family history of problems with sedation
Slide 18 - Past Medical History ASA Physical Status Score ASA I : normally healthy patient ASA II: mild systemic disease ASA III: severe systemic disease ASA IV: severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life ASA V: moribund patient not expected to survive without operation
Slide 19 - Physical Exam Mallampati/Samsoon Classification Class I: soft palate, uvula, pillars Class II: soft palate, portion of uvula Class III: soft palate, base of uvula Class IV: hard palate only Other predictors of difficult airway Obesity with short neck Reduced neck movement Inability to protrude the lower teeth Reduced mouth opening Receding mandible Thyromental distance of less than 3 fingers
Slide 20 - Last Meal Full stomach is a risk of aspiration during sedation!!! NPO status Last solid intake > 6 to 8 hours Last opaque liquid/formula intake > 4 hours Last clear liquid/breastmilk intake > 2 hours These guidelines do not apply for patients with GI disturbances
Slide 21 - Last Meal Full stomachs include the following… Any patient with material in their stomach Food Medications Contrast Charcoal Blood Any patient with delayed gastric emptying Morbid obesity Small bowel obstruction Pyloric stenosis GI dysmotility And so on…
Slide 22 - Events leading to sedation… Know why your patient needs sedation!! Is it safe to sedate your patient?? What kind of sedation are you trying to achieve?? Analgesia, anxiolysis, amnesia, or a combination Anticipated duration of therapy
Slide 23 - Choosing the Right Drug There is no magic cocktail…all drugs have potential complications Drugs to consider should fit your goals for sedation with minimum risk to the patient Considerations when choosing a drug Route of administration Onset of action Duration of action Contraindications Therapeutic advantages
Slide 24 - Our favorite PICU drugs Anesthetics: Propofol, Ketamine, Pentobarbital Analgesics: Fentanyl, Morphine Anxiolytics: Midazolam, Lorazepam, Diazepam Other: Dexmedetomidine, Clonidine
Slide 25 - Propofol Onset: 30 sec Duration: 3-10 min Dose: 1 mg/kg Infusion: 50-150 mcg/kg/min Disadvantages: respiratory depression, hypotension, bradycardia, NO analgesia, metabolic acidosis with prolonged infusion
Slide 26 - Ketamine Onset: 30 sec (IV), 3-4 min (IM) Duration: 5-10 min (IV), 12-25 min (IM) Dose: 0.5-1 mg/kg (IV), 4-5 mg/kg (IM) Infusion: 5-20 mcg/kg/min Analgesia and amnesia preserves upper airway tone and reflexes Disadvantages: excess secretions, increased ICP, emergence reaction
Slide 27 - Pentobarbital Onset: 3-5 min (IV) Duration: 15-45 min Dose: 1-2 mg/kg Disadvantages: NO reversal agent, no analgesia (enhances pain perception)
Slide 28 - Fentanyl Onset: 2-3 min Duration: 30-60 min Dose: 1 mcg/kg 100x more potent than morphine Available reversal agent Naloxone Disadvantages: no amnesia/ anxiolysis, “steel chest”
Slide 29 - Morphine Onset: 5-10 min (IV) Duration: 4-6 hours Dose: 0.05-0.1 mg/kg Available reversal agent: Naloxone Disadvantages: no amnesia/ anxiolysis, histamine release
Slide 30 - Onset: 2-6 min Duration: 45-60 min Dose: 0.05-0.1 mg/kg Available reversal agent Flumazenil Retrograde amnesia Disadvantages: NO analgesia, paradoxical reactions Midazolam (Versed)
Slide 31 - Diazepam (Valium) Onset: 1-1.5 hours (oral) Duration: variable but LONG (oral) Dose: 0.1-0.8 mg/kg/day (oral) Useful for tapering Disadvantages: accumulation, long half-life, avoid rapid IV push
Slide 32 - Lorazepam (Ativan) Onset:15-30 min (IV) Duration: 3-4 hours (up to 12 hrs) Dose: 0.05-0.1 mg/kg Disadvantages: mixed with propylene glycol Anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap Avoid infusions
Slide 33 - Dexmedetomidine (Precedex) IV alpha-2 agonist 1700x more selective for alpha 2 Onset: 15-30 min Duration: 60-120 min Dose: load with 0.5-1 mcg/kg Infusion of 0.3 – 1.5 mcg/kg/hr Disadvantages: bradycardia, only approved for 24 hr infusions
Slide 34 - Clonidine Centrally acting alpha-2 agonist Onset: 30-60 min (oral) Duration: 6-10 hours Dose: 0.05 mg/day (oral) Can convert to transdermal patch Eases withdrawal & decreases anesthetic requirements
Slide 35 - Contraindications All drugs should be used judiciously!!! Commonly seen relative contraindications and adverse effects Ketamine  increased ICP, excess salivation, emergence reaction Propofol  hypotension, acidosis Dexmedetomidine  bradycardia, arrhythmia Benzodiazepine  hypotension
Slide 36 - Therapeutic Advantages Not all side effects are harmful Considerations for choice of drug Ketamine  bronchodilator Pentobarbital or Midazolam  anti-convulsant Diazepam  muscle relaxation
Slide 37 - Cases
Slide 38 - Case #1 An 8 year old known asthmatic is in the ED having received continuous albuterol nebs, steroids, and subcutaneous epinephrine. You check on him and find him unresponsive with a RR of 6 and very poor air movement. An RT runs in with a ABG showing pH 6.9, pCO2 190. What medications do you consider for intubation & sedation?
Slide 39 - Case # 2 A transport team has just arrived to pick up a 4 year old child with severe stridor. On exam she is alert, sitting in Mom’s lap & maintaining her sats, but has severe retractions with every breath and drooling. She appears frightened, and the paramedic asks you to order something to sedate her so that she can be strapped to the gurney. What is your response?
Slide 40 - Case # 3 You consult in the ED on a 7 year old who has presented with sore throat and noisy breathing. He has received 2 gm of chloral hydrate 1/2 hour before for an attempted CT scan of the neck. In the ED you find him in the back room with his mother, with a sat probe on his finger not attached to a monitor. He has retractions and poor air movement with every breath. What happened and what would you do?
Slide 41 - Case # 4 You are taking care of a 9 mo post-op cardiac patient who is intubated and requiring sedation. She initially had issues with heart block and required pacing but is now in a sinus rhythm of 110. She has been difficult to sedate with Fentanyl & Midazolam and the nurses ask you if you can add a 3rd agent. What agents would you want to avoid in this patient and what do you need to consider?
Slide 42 - Case # 5 You are called to the ED to see a 6 year old trauma patient who luckily has a normal head CT but unfortunately has a severely displaced tib-fib fracture. The orthopedic surgeons are gathering equipment to reduce and splint the fracture. What drugs do you think about using and what else do you consider?
Slide 43 - Preventative Medicine is Key!! Optimize your patient prior to sedation Correct acidosis Keep euvolemic Know “AMPLE” Anticipate difficulties and be prepared Bag, mask, oxygen, +/- airway box Suction Normal saline/Lactated Ringer’s Monitors – O2, CO2, CR monitor, BP Titrate medications to effect…it is easier to give more drug than it is to remove it!!!
Slide 44 - Summary Many situations require sedation in the ICU Components of sedation include anesthesia, analgesia, anxiolysis, & amnesia There are several levels of sedation Remember mnemonic “AMPLE” when evaluating a patient for sedation Choosing the right drug involves knowing the goals of sedation alongside drug profile for sedatives Always anticipate possible complications & be prepared to deal with them