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Published on : Jul 26, 2014
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Slide 1 - Brain Anatomy and Function
Slide 2 - Anatomy of the Brain Separated into right and left halves by the Interhemispheric Fissure The Central Sulcus runs down & forward The Lateral Fissure runs backward & up
Slide 3 - Thought Voluntary movement Speech motor Covers 1/3rd of area of the brain Frontal and Temporal Lobes Memory Auditory function Frontal Temporal
Slide 4 - Sensation Touch Pressure Pain Temperature Texture Position/spatial orientation Parietal and Occipital Lobes Vision Visual processes Reading Parietal Occipital
Slide 5 - Large Muscle Coordination Balance Walking, Writing Medulla Oblongata, Cerebellum, and Pons Relay between the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum Respiration Heart rate Continuous with the spinal cord (2.5 cm) Cerebellum Medulla Oblongata Pons
Slide 6 - Basal Ganglia and Thalamus “The Brakes” Modifies movement on a minute-to-minute basis Inhibits Movement Coordination Cortical relay
Slide 7 - Attention Sensory gateway Memory processing Rage Aggression Sexuality Appetite/Thirst Limbic System
Slide 8 - The Nerve Cell Synaptic junction
Slide 9 - Neurotransmitters Serotonin – major – emotions, judgment, eating and sleep disorders (associated with frontotemporal disorder) Glutamate/GABA - Widespread, anxiety, sleep, (Valium targets this) Dopamine – memory, mood, movement, Parkinson's Disease, psychiatric problems Endorphins – relief of pain, (Morphine targets this) Lichtman, J., et al Washington University 2002
Slide 10 - Serotonin Normal functions Emotions Judgment Sleep Imbalances Depression Suicidal behavior Anxiety Impulsive behavior Eating disorders Glutamate/GABA Normal functions Involved in most facets of brain function Imbalances Memory disturbances Sleep disturbances Anxiety
Slide 11 - Dopamine Normal functions Mood Movement Memory Imbalances Movement disorders Schizophrenia Addiction Endorphins Normal functions Relieve pain Induce euphoria
Slide 12 - Normal Aging Brain Brain weight and volume decrease Grooves widen Surface smoothes Neurofibrillary tangles increase Understanding normal variation is key to interpretation
Slide 13 - Brain Glucose Metabolism – Normal Normal brain tissue actively metabolizes glucose and its analogue (F-18 FDG) Glucose metabolism provides 95% of the energy required for brain function FDG is irreversibly trapped within brain cells in proportion to its use because it cannot be broken down or stored unlike glucose
Slide 14 - FDG-PET Normal Brain Metabolism
Slide 15 - FDG-PET Abnormal Brain Imaging Dementia Memory loss Cognitive Decline Epilepsy Localization of a seizure focus Tumor Assessment Radiation Necrosis vs Tumor Grade Objective Imaging Diagnosis of Movement Disorders Huntington’s Disease Parkinson’s Disease
Slide 16 - Dementia Diagnosis: Current Methods History and physical examination Neurologist (Sens. = 50-80%) Neuropsychologist / Neuropsychiatrist Neuropsychological testing MRI / CT Blood testing Functional Neuroimaging (SPECT/ PET/MR) Sens.=80-90%
Slide 17 - Summary Normal Brain Anatomy Normal Brain Function Current PET Brain Applications: Diagnosis of Dementia Seizure Localization Tumor Assessment Objective Imaging Diagnosis of Movement Disorders (not CMS approved)
Slide 18 - Contributors Rebecca Trunnell Hyman Coordinator of PET Services Clinical PET of West County - Creve Coeur, MO Kevin L. Berger, M.D. Assistant Professor of Radiology Director of PET Imaging Michigan State University – East Lansing, MI