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Slide 1 - Allergic Rhinitis in Children Alfred Tam MBBS(HK), FRCP(Edin., London, Glasg.) FHKCPaed, FHKAM(Paediatrics) Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Hong Kong
Slide 2 - Allergic Rhinitis in Children What is allergic rhinitis? Diagnosis and differential diagnosis Assessment and classification of AR What can make AR worse or better? Health effects of AR What can we do to make AR better?
Slide 3 - What is allergic rhinitis? Rhinorhoea Nasal blockage Postnasal drip Itchiness Sneezing Associated health effects IgE mediated
Slide 4 - Allergic rhinitis is increasingLee SL et al. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2004; 15: 72-8.
Slide 5 - AR prevalence varies in different citiesWong G et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2001; 31: 1225.
Slide 6 - Atopic sensitization is not that different!Wong G et al. BMJ 2004; 329:486-9.
Slide 7 - Allergic Rhinitis in HanoiNguyen et al. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2003; 14:272-9.
Slide 8 - ppt slide no 8 content not found
Slide 9 - Diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis Clinical symptoms of recurrent or persistent rhinitis and/or associated health effects Signs of atopy and recurrent or persistent rhinitis Demonstration of IgE allergy Exclusion of other causes of rhinitis
Slide 10 - Diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis Clinical symptoms of recurrent or persistent rhinitis and/or associated health effects Rhinorhoea Nasal blockage Postnasal drip Itchiness Sneezing Others: conjunctivitis, eczema, asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, otitis media with effusion, sleep obstruction…
Slide 11 - Diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis Signs of atopy and recurrent or persistent rhinitis
Slide 12 - Diagnosis in Primary Care Setting
Slide 13 - Diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis Demonstration of IgE allergy
Slide 14 - Immunoassay Not influenced by medication Not influenced by skin disease Does not require expertise Quality control possible Expensive Skin test Higher sensitivity Immediate results Requires expertise Cheaper Immunoassay vs Skin Test for Diagnosis of Allergy
Slide 15 - Other Causes of Rhinitis in Children Infection Viral, bacterial, Rhinosinusitis Foreign body in the nose Rhinitis associated with physical or chemical factors Drug, food induced rhinitis NARES, aspirin sensitivity Vasomotor rhinitis
Slide 16 - Health Effects of Allergic Rhinitis Social inconvenience Sleep disturbances/obstruction Learning difficulties Impaired maxillary growth Dental problems Infection: nose and sinuses Co-morbidities: conjunctivitis, asthma, rhinosinusitis, otitis media
Slide 17 - Adapted from Meltzer EO et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99:S815 Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) Profiles of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis * * * * * * 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Physical Functioning Role– Physical Bodily Pain General Health Vitality Social Functioning Role– Emotional Mental Health Change in Health allergic rhinitis (n=312) controls (n=139) † Declininghealthstatus Domains scale: 0 to 100
Slide 18 - ppt slide no 18 content not found
Slide 19 - Perennial Rhinitis: an Independent Risk Factor for Asthma (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) Adapted from Leynaert B et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104:301 Asthma (%) Atopic Non atopic no rhinitis, N=5198 rhinitis, N=1412 OR=11 OR=17 0 5 10 15 20 25
Slide 20 - Looking for asthma…
Slide 21 - In Patients with Rhinitis: Routinely ask for symptoms suggestive of asthma Perform chest examination Consider lung function testing Consider tests for bronchial hyperresponsiveness in selected cases
Slide 22 - Moderate-severe one or more items . abnormal sleep . impairment of daily activities, sport, leisure . abnormal work and school . troublesome symptoms Persistent . > 4 days per week . and > 4 weeks Mild normal sleep & no impairment of daily activities, sport, leisure & normal work and school & no troublesome symptoms Intermittent . Š 4 days per week . or Š 4 weeks ARIA Classification in untreated patients
Slide 23 - ppt slide no 23 content not found
Slide 24 - sneezing rhinorrhea nasal nasal eye obstruction itch symptoms H1-antihistamines oral +++ +++ 0 to + +++ ++ intranasal ++ +++ + ++ 0 intraocular 0 0 0 0 +++ Corticosteroids +++ +++ ++ ++ + Cromones intranasal + + + + 0 intraocular 0 0 0 0 ++ Decongestants intranasal 0 0 ++ 0 0 oral 0 0 + 0 0 Anti-cholinergics 0 +++ 0 0 0 Anti-leukotrienes 0 + ++ 0 ++ Medications for Allergic Rhinitis - ARIA
Slide 25 - Oral Antihistamines First generation agents Chlorpheniramine Brompheniramine Diphenydramine Promethazine Tripolidine Hydroxyzine Azatadine Newer agents Acrivastine Azelastine Cetirizine Desloratadine Fexofenadine Levocetirizine Loratadine Mizolastine
Slide 26 - Nasal Antihistamines Azelastine Levocabastine Olopatadine
Slide 27 - Bachert C et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004:114:838 Efficacy of an Antihistamine over 6 Months in Persistent Allergic Rhinitis
Slide 28 - Efficacy of an Antihistamine in the Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Perennial Symptoms (n= 337) (n= 339) Simons FER et al., J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:617
Slide 29 - Newer Generation Oral Antihistamines Somnolence/Drowsiness
Slide 30 - First line treatment for mild allergic rhinitis Effective for Rhinorrhea Nasal pruritus Sneezing Less effective for Nasal blockage Possible additional anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effect In-vitro effect > in-vivo effect Minimal or no sedative effects Once daily administration Rapid onset and 24 hour duration of action Newer Generation Oral Antihistamines
Slide 31 - Decongestants: Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonists Oral Pseudoephedrine Nasal Phenylephrine Oxymetazoline Xylometazoline
Slide 32 - vasoconstriction Decongestants: Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonists nasal airway lumen nasal turbinates nasal septum
Slide 33 - Decongestants EFFICACY: Oral decongestants: moderate Nasal decongestants: high ADVERSE EFFECTS: Oral decongestants: insomnia, tachycardia, hyperkinesia tremor, increased blood pressure, stroke (?) Nasal decongestants: tachyphylaxis, rebound congestion, nasal hyperresponsiveness, rhinitis medicamentosa
Slide 34 - nucleus cytosolic phospholipase A2 arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase activating protein leukotriene A4 5-lipoxygenase leukotriene C4 synthase leukotriene C4 leukotriene C4 leukotriene D4 leukotriene E4 CysLT1 receptor + Cysteinyl-Leukotriene Production and the CysLT1 Receptor
Slide 35 - Daytime Nasal Symptoms Score (0-3 point scale) -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 Adapted from Nayak, et al. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002;88: 592 Change frombaseline (mean, 95% CI) mean baseline=2.0 * * placebo, N=149 montelukast, N=155 loratadine, N=301 *p<0.01 vs placebo Efficacy of a CysLT1 Receptor Antagonist in Allergic Rhinitis with Seasonal Symptoms
Slide 36 - Anti-Leukotriene Treatment in Allergic Rhinitis Efficacy Equipotent to H1 receptor antagonists but with onset of action after 2 days Reduce nasal and systemic eosinophilia May be used for simultaneous treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma Safety Dyspepsia (approx. 2%)
Slide 37 - Nasal Corticosteroids Beclomethasone dipropionate Budesonide Ciclesonide* Flunisolide Fluticasone propionate Mometasone furoate Triamcinolone acetonide * Currently only approved for asthma
Slide 38 - Nasal Corticosteroids reduction of symptoms and exacerbations
Slide 39 - Meltzer E. et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;104:107. Efficacy of Nasal Corticosteroid Sprays in Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Seasonal Symptoms
Slide 40 - Mandl M. et al. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997;79:370 Comparative Efficacy of Nasal Corticosteroids
Slide 41 - Nasal Corticosteroids Most potent anti-inflammatory agents Effective in treatment of all nasal symptoms including obstruction Superior to anti-histamines and anti-leukotienes First line pharmacotherapy for persistent allergic rhinitis
Slide 42 - Nasal Corticosteroids Overall safe to use Adverse Effects Nasal irritation Epistaxis Septal perforation (extremely rare) HPA axis suppression (inconsistent and not clinically significant) Suppressed growth (only in one study with beclomethasone)
Slide 43 - Adapted from Galant, S. P. et al. Pediatrics 2003;112:96 Nasal Corticosteroid vs Placebo: Effects on 12-Hour Urinary Free Cortisol in 2-3 Year-Old Children 6-week treatment 0.98 SE=1.14 N=31 0.94 SE=1.15 N=29 Adjusted Geometric Mean of the Change from Baseline 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Fluticasone Proprionate Nasal Spray 200 µg daily Placebo Value of 1 indicates no change from baseline
Slide 44 - Other Management Aspects Manage other co-morbidities: Allergic conjunctivitis Asthma Sinusitis… Environmental manipulations: allergen avoidance Pollution treatment Nutritional support Activities and sports
Slide 45 - Environmental Control House dust mites Pets Cockroaches Molds Pollen 1. Allergens 2. Pollutants and Irritants
Slide 46 - House dust mite allergen avoidance Provide adequate ventilation to decrease humidity Wash bedding regularly at 60°C Encase pillow, mattress and quilt in allergen impermeable covers Use vacuum cleaner with HEPA filter Dispose of feather bedding Remove carpets Remove curtains, pets and stuffed toys from bedroom
Slide 47 - Allergen Avoidance Pets Remove pets from bedrooms and, even better, from the entire home Vacuum carpets, mattresses and upholstery regularly Wash pets regularly (±) Molds Ensure dry indoor conditions Use ammonia to remove mold from bathrooms and other wet spaces Cockroaches Eradicate cockroaches with appropriate gel-type, non-volatile, insecticides Eliminate dampness, cracks in floors, ceilings, cover food; wash surfaces, fabrics to remove allergen Pollen Remain indoors with windows closed at peak pollen times Wear sunglasses Use air-conditioning, where possible Install car pollen filter
Slide 48 - To Conclude… Allergic rhinitis is very common and causes considerable morbidity Adequate and appropriate treatment leads to significant improvement in quality of life Co-morbid conditions are common and warrants special attention and treatment for optimal results Environmental manipulations is also important in the control of disease
Slide 49 - Thank you for staying awake! Or, you may now wake up and ask questions!