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Published on : Mar 14, 2014
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Slide 1 - Amnesia - What is it? A selective disruption of the processes underlying long-term memory Short-term and sensory memory are typically functional Other cognitive functions are not impaired Intelligence, attention...
Slide 2 - Amnesia - What is it? A selective disruption of the processes underlying long-term memory Short-term and sensory memory are typically functional Other cognitive functions are not impaired Intelligence, attention...
Slide 3 - Recency vs Primacy Amnesia patients exhibit recency effect but not primacy effect Long-term memory Short-term memory
Slide 4 - Amnesia - What is it? A selective disruption of the processes underlying long-term memory Short-term and sensory memory are typically functional Other cognitive functions are not impaired Intelligence, attention...
Slide 5 - Retrograde & Anterograde Retrograde amnesia - Loss of information that was learned before the onset of amnesia Anterograde amnesia - inability to learn new information after the onset of amnesia Both can occur in the same patient and commonly do
Slide 6 - Retrograde & Anterograde Retrograde amnesia - Loss of information that was learned before the onset of amnesia Anterograde amnesia - inability to learn new information after the onset of amnesia Both can occur in the same patient and commonly do
Slide 7 - Causes of Amnesia Concussion Migraines Hypoglycemia Epilepsy Electroconvulsive shock therapy Specific brain lesions (i.e. surgical removal) Ischemic events Drugs (esp. anesthetics) Infection Psychological Nutritional deficiency
Slide 8 - Types of memory
Slide 9 - Proposed types of memory
Slide 10 - Brain regions associated with human amnesia Diencephalic amnesia - damage to the medial thalamus and mamillary nuclei Medial temporal lobe amnesia - damage to the hippocampal formation, uncus, amygdala, and surrounding cortical areas
Slide 11 - Brain regions associated with human amnesia Diencephalic amnesia - damage to the medial thalamus and mamillary nuclei Medial temporal lobe amnesia - damage to the hippocampal formation, uncus, amygdala, and surrounding cortical areas
Slide 12 - Diencephalic Amnesia Damage to the medial thalamus and/or mamillary bodies stroke Korsakoff’s syndrome Caused by thiamine deficiency as a result of chronic alcoholism
Slide 13 - Korsakoff’s symptoms Anterograde amnesia Retrograde amnesia Covers most of the adult life Lack of insight Typically unaware of memory problems Confabulation Patient makes up stories to fill in the past
Slide 14 - Medial Temporal lobe amnesia Hippocampus is most important site of damage
Slide 15 - Case H.M. Epileptic patient Had medial temporal lobes removed to stop seizures Seizures were reduced but H.M. became severely amnesiac.
Slide 16 - Case H.M. His intelligence is above normal IQ = 112 Performs normally on all tests of short-term memory Selective long-term memory impairment
Slide 17 - Case H.M. Control brain H.M.
Slide 18 - Case H.M. Memory impairment for recent events spans the 3 years prior to his surgery Capable of recalling childhood memories Anterograde amnesia was initially thought to be global (all types of memory) later discovered that certain types of learning are intact
Slide 19 - Case H.M. Grave memory impairment for recent events spans the 3 years prior to his surgery Capable of recalling childhood memories Anterograde amnesia was initially thought to be global (all types of memory) later discovered that certain types of learning are intact
Slide 20 - Case H.M. Priming still works H.M. can still form procedural memories
Slide 21 - Case H.M. The Gollin incomplete picture test subjects asked to identify the object pictures are shown in sequence from least to most clear shown the same images at a later date both amnesiacs and control subjects identify the object at an earlier stage
Slide 22 - Case H.M. Mirror drawing task. Trace figure while looking in a mirror Control subjects get better at this with repetitive training.
Slide 23 - Case H.M. Mirror drawing task H.M. improved with repeated training. Procedural memory is intact He cannot recall ever having performed this task before Day 1 Day 2 Day3
Slide 24 - Case H.M. Doesn’t remember the death of his father Can’t remember or describe his job Doesn’t remember his examiners
Slide 25 - Case H.M. According to our memory dichotomies, what type of memory is the medial temporal lobe (especially the hippocampus) responsible for?
Slide 26 - Types of memory
Slide 27 - Case H.M. H.M.s Retrograde amnesia is temporally graded remote memory is spared but recent memory is lost Not all amnesia patients show this pattern V.C., N.A. have extensive retrograde amnesia (flat gradient)
Slide 28 - Lessons from amnesia Existence of Multiple memory systems Localization of cognitive functions
Slide 29 - ppt slide no 29 content not found
Slide 30 - S. “Photographic” extreme memory ability (a mnemonist) Able to recall complex test stimuli
Slide 31 - S. “Photographic” extreme memory ability (a mnemonist) Able to recall complex test stimuli S. used two “strategies” or abilities typical of mnemonists: rich synesthesia-like quality to his perception of stimuli - leads to stronger associative links vivid and elaborate mental imagery of things he should remember
Slide 32 - S. “ Even numbers remind me of images. Take the number 1. This is a proud, well-built man; 2 is a high-spirited woman; 3 a gloomy person (shy, I don’t Know); 6 a man with a swollen foot...” Luria, A.R. The mind of a mnemonist. 1968 Luria, A.R. The man with a shattered world. 1972