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Amnesia and Alzheimer PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Mar 14, 2014

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  • Slide 1 - Amnesia and Alzheimer’s Kim Hyun-woo. Place photo here
  • Slide 2 - Questions What are Amnesia , Alzheimer’s and Dementia? Where is Memory? What hypothesis can you make from these disease? And Design your own experiments to prove or disprove it.
  • Slide 3 - Contents What is Amnesia? Classifying Amnesia. H.M. : A Case Study 3 experimental ways (free recall, recognition, cued-recall ) What is Alzheimer? Memory Span Working Memory Autobiographical Memory Semantic Memory Implicit Memory Location of Memory and the role of hippocampus.
  • Slide 4 - Amnesia ( From Wikipedia ) Condition in which memory is disturbed the inability to imagine the future. amnesiacs with damaged hippocampus cannot imagine the future. (Reference) Patients with hippocampal amnesia cannot imagine new experiences
  • Slide 5 - Dementia ( From Wikipedia ) Etymology from Latin de- "apart, away" + mens (genitive mentis) "mind") the progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the body beyond what might be expected from normal aging. reversible or irreversible, depending upon the etiology of the disease. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. This is incurable, degenerative, and terminal disease. Irreversible , not known etiology.
  • Slide 6 - Amnesia ( Category ) Retrograde (partial or complete) / Anterograde Cause Location of the brain damage particular parts in the brain are implicated in memory and amnesia Functional deficit
  • Slide 7 - H.M. : A case study 27 years old For alleviating chronic epileptic seizers surgeons severed his hippocampus Alleviation of seizers But, severe disruption of memory Normal on immediate tests , otherwise no memory on delayed test.
  • Slide 8 - Theoretical Accounts of Amnesia(1) Hippocampus is involved in mediating memory. Cons. - maybe surgeons damaged other parts Short term memory / Long term memory Cons.- short memory span doesn’t mean an impaired long term memory. More recent claim, procedural / declarative memory According to Cohen & Eichenbaum, amnesiacs can learn the solution of the Tower of Hanoi problem. (still controversial)
  • Slide 9 - Theoretical Accounts of Amnesia(2) Implicit and explicit Memory (chapter 7) Retrieval Problem
  • Slide 10 - Theoretical Accounts of Amnesia(3) The role of context
  • Slide 11 - Theoretical Accounts of Amnesia(4) Amnesiacs can use familiarity on many tasks, this use is impaired relative to controls. Control subjects can use familiarity and conscious recollection.
  • Slide 12 - Alzheimer’s Disease(AD) Reported the first case in 1907 Alzheimer’s Disease is still poorly understood. Amyloid plaques , neurofibrillary tangles are abnormal structure in the brain of AD patients Beta amyloid is toxic to neurons
  • Slide 13 - Alzheimer’s Disease(AD) Difficulties to understand No symptom Significant cognitive decline with no obvious cause As the disease progresses, more areas are affected MRI,CT are useless PET, fMRI are sometime useful
  • Slide 14 - Amnesia vs Alzheimer’s
  • Slide 15 - Alzheimer’s In the early stages of disease, even though decreased memory performance, the bow shape of serial curve Short memory span Small working memory ( Figure 8.8 )
  • Slide 16 - Alzheimer’s ( Autobiographical memory ) Bow-shaped serial position curve
  • Slide 17 - Alzheimer’s( Semantic memory ) Alzheimer’s patients tend to represent objects in term of concrete dimensions such as size instead of abstract dimensions
  • Slide 18 - Where is memory? Localized vs Distributed H.M. Case : hippocampus serves the important role of memory. During intentional memory encoding and retrieval, universal activation. On evolutionary grounds, Reliance on a central memory organ would also be problematic.
  • Slide 19 - Questions What are Amnesia , Alzheimer and Dementia? - Skip Where is Memory? - I agree with the point of view that memory is distributed. What hypothesis can you make from these disease? And Design your own experiments to prove or disprove it. Procedural memory is longer than Declarative memory.
  • Slide 20 - Q & A

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