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Published on : Feb 11, 2014
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Slide 1 - Putting Advanced Transportation Technologies to Work for Clean Air and Energy Security The Mobile Source Technical Review Subcommittee April 18, 2001 David Rodgers U.S. Department of Energy
Slide 2 - Overview Why Use Alternative Fuels? What Alternative Fuel Vehicles are Available Now? Alternative Fuel Vehicle R&D Challenges Advanced AFVs and Hybrid Vehicles Vision for Transportation Deployment Programs Selected Transportation Deployment Policies The Energy Policy Act (EPACT) Federal Promotion of Clean and Efficient Vehicles
Slide 3 - Why Use Alternative Fuels? Petroleum Displacement Energy Diversity Air Quality Improvement Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions Domestic Economic Development
Slide 4 - Estimated World Oil Supply Source: EIA, Long Term World Oil Supply, July 28, 2000.
Slide 5 - U.S. Transportation Oil Demand 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 GAP Source: Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19, DOE/ORNL-6958, September 1999, and EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2000, DOE/EIA-0383(2000), December 1999 Millions of Barrels per Day Domestic Oil Production Heavy Trucks Automobiles Light Trucks Passenger Vehicles
Slide 6 - Transportation Share of Emissions Still a major contributor, despite reductions in new vehicle emissions achieved over the last decade CO NOx Lead VOCs CO2 Particulates 79% 53% 13% 44% 33% 25% SO2 7% Source: EPA
Slide 7 - Relative Greenhouse Gases 25 50 75 100 Zero Zero or a Credit Zero
Slide 8 - Summary of Present Situation The U.S. Transportation Sector: Is 95% dependent on petroleum; Accounts for 67% of all U.S. petroleum use; Produces a significant share of U.S. pollutant releases; Has major impacts on consumers, the economy, and the national trade balance; Currently has no readily available alternative to petroleum; and Has limited infrastructure to support alternative fuels.
Slide 9 - Alternative Transportation Fuels Electricity Ethanol Hydrogen Methanol Natural Gas Compressed Liquefied Propane 100% Biodiesel P-Series
Slide 10 - Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available Now Electric Ethanol Natural Gas Propane
Slide 11 - Electric Vehicles Low Emissions Quiet At least 4% of new vehicles sold in California starting in 2003 must be EVs Expensive Limited Range Toyota RAV4 Ford Ranger
Slide 12 - Ethanol Vehicles Low GHGs Less Reactive Subsidy Required to be Cost Competitive Few Refueling Stations but Numbers Increasing Ford Taurus Chrysler Minivan Ford Ranger
Slide 13 - Natural Gas Vehicles Very Low Emissions Good Performance Lower Cost Fuel Limited Range, but Adequate for Most Applications Few Refueling Stations Higher Cost Vehicle Ford Crown Victoria Ford F-150 Honda Civic New Flyer D40 LF Bus
Slide 14 - Propane Vehicles Low Emissions Good Performance Cost Similar to Gasoline Few Typical Refueling Stations, Many Potential Places to Refuel Higher Vehicle Cost Ford F-150 Ford Club Wagon
Slide 15 - Alternative Fuel Vehicle R&D Challenges EV Batteries Ethanol Production from Cellulose Reduce Natural Gas and Propane Vehicle Cost Expand Refueling Infrastructure Hydrogen Production (for Fuel Cell Vehicles)
Slide 16 - Potential Future AFV Technology Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicles High Efficiency Direct Injection Engines for Light- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Fuel Cell Ford Focus Fuel Cell Mercedes A-Class
Slide 17 - Hybrid Passenger Cars Honda Insight Toyota Prius DOE programs have spurred interest in hybrid vehicle technologies Two models currently available Toyota Prius (48 mpg) Honda Insight (64 mpg) Potential for very low emissions Represent a “Spin-Off” of technology developed for EVs Good potential for petroleum conservation
Slide 18 - Vision for Transportation Deployment Programs A sustainable alternative fuel infrastructure Widespread availability of AFV and ATV products True acceptance of diverse fuels and technologies in national/regional/local transportation portfolios Cost-competitive technologies and fuels in a variety of markets A diverse fuel supply for transportation A change in societal norms leading to demand for clean and efficient vehicles
Slide 19 - Long-term Outcomes Billions of gallons of oil displaced or reduced Thousands of tons of emission reductions Tens of millions of AFVs and ATVs Enhanced energy security and improved transportation sustainability
Slide 20 - Deployment Strategies Understand the market Develop and provide unbiased information Offer technical and financial assistance Develop, issue, and enforce regulations Find and support partners Conduct mission advocacy
Slide 21 - OTT Deployment Portfolio Clean Cities: A voluntary Federal program designed to accelerate and expand the use of alternative fuel vehicles in communities across the country Testing and Evaluation: In partnership with industry, validate the performance and emissions of near market-ready advanced technology vehicles EPACT Replacement Fuels: To implement the requirements of EPACT, collect data, perform analysis, prepare reports to Congress, and prepare, issue, and enforce needed regulations Advanced Vehicle Competitions: Student competitions, such as the FutureTruck Challenge and the Ethanol Challenge, provide an unparalleled education in automotive engineering and push the envelope of advanced vehicle technologies
Slide 22 - 79 Designations 2 new in 2000 Baton Rouge Truckee Meadows 3 Designations Scheduled in 2001 Triangle, NC (March 19) Twin Cities, MN (April) Vermont (June) More than 4,400 stakeholders 115,000 AFVs More than 5,000 refueling stations 102 million gallons of petroleum displaced per year 19,000 metric tons of emissions reduced per year Clean Cities Program Accomplishments
Slide 23 - Evolution of Deployment Activities Reducing AFV emissions testing AFV case studies Light-duty fleets Analysis of AFV options Neat fuels only Increasing Hybrid vehicle testing Fuel-efficient vehicles Niche markets Analysis of future fuels Blended fuels
Slide 24 - Selected Transportation Deployment Policies
Slide 25 - The Energy Policy Act Set a goal – 10% by 2000 and 30% by 2010 Voluntary programs Public Information Fleet mandates Grants and incentives
Slide 26 - Assumptions in 1992 EPACT Barriers to alternative fuels are primarily informational The vehicle mandates solves the chicken/egg problem Fleets are uniform, centrally refueled, and easily regulated Small tax incentives and grants are sufficient to push the market Fuel providers will be the leaders in AFV use Saying we have a goal is all that’s needed
Slide 27 - Results Heading In Right Direction Federal State Fuel Provider
Slide 28 - Other Parts of EPACT Working Too Clean Cities has 80 participants - thousands of vehicles Public information on AFVs widely available Refueling stations have grown Dozens of AFVs offered by OEMs U.S. AFVS among the best in the world
Slide 29 - But not good enough to meet the EPACT 30% goal for 2010 30% is about 30-40 Billion gallons Oxygenates in gasoline are predicted to continue Existing EPACT fleets and other AFVs contribute about 0.4% Including Private & Local Fleets in EPACT could add at most 0.7% by 2010 30 EPACT Fleets Oxygenates in Gasoline Other AF Vs Private & Local Fleets Percent of 2010 Gasoline Consumption EPACT Goal ?????
Slide 30 - What Had to Have Happened to Meet EPACT Goals To meet the EPACT goals would have required: about 6% of all LDVs in 2000 to be AFVs about 35% of all new LDVs in 2000 and beyond to be AFVs Percent of New LDVs
Slide 31 - Federal Promotion of Clean and Efficient Vehicles Recognition of important Federal role Regulation may be necessary Incentives may be necessary Consumer education will be necessary Comprehensive program Multiple market segments Multiple technology options Coordination and partnership Long term commitment
Slide 32 - Contacts at the Department of Energy Office of Technology Utilization
Slide 33 - Resources at the Department of Energy Clean Cities 1-800-CCITIES Alternative Fuels Data Center Alternative Fuels Hotline 1-800-423-1363 Fuel Economy Guide EV and Hybrid Test Data