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Alternative Fuels for Transportation-FourEnergy PowerPoint Presentation

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  • Slide 1 - Presented by: Cal Macy Project Director Pete Sparks Project Coordinator Natural Gas 101 CNG vs LNG what is the difference?
  • Slide 2 - Why study natural gas? None of my friends drive one…. Presented by: Cal Macy -Long Beach City College ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY CENTER
  • Slide 3 - Green Port Program Ports of LB and LA are going green ATTE has been teaching “green” before it was a term
  • Slide 4 - What will be the propulsion for the new Millennium?? NGV Fuel Cell Emerging Alternative Energies Diesel Engines Gasoline Engines Hybrid Cars Direct Injection Lean Burn Common Rail Direct Injection NGV Natural Gas Vehicle FCEV Fuel Cell EV Series/ parallel Hybrid EV Electric Vehicles CNG Hybrid Motor Heavy-Duty Cng/Lng NGV Natural Gas Vehicle Natural gas is today’s key to a healthier tomorrow Gaseous/ alcohol based fuels
  • Slide 5 - What will be the propulsion for the new Millennium?? Range and Reliability are the two biggest challenges for Alternative Fuels Cost of fuel and availability are the operator’s concerns
  • Slide 6 - Where can I get CNG/LNG for my car or truck? Natural gas is today’s key to a healthier tomorrow Clean Energy announced plans to install LNG/CNG fueling stations across the nation at existing Pilot/Flying J Truck Stops in 33 states Phase 1 150 new stations 70 in 2012 80 in 2013 $2.79/DGE LB 1/25/2012
  • Slide 7 - Where can I get my car or truck serviced? The ATTE Centers have trained over 5000 fleet technicians from all over the US, Canada, and Mexico We can train the next generation of fleet technicians
  • Slide 8 - ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY CENTERS ALTERNATIVE FUELS TRAINING PROGRAMS
  • Slide 9 - ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY CENTERS Long Beach was the first Clean City in California LBCC provided initial CNG & LNG Training for City fleets 10 ATT Centers were established in 1993
  • Slide 10 - ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY CENTERS ATTE is a Consortium of 8 Regional Colleges Statewide Providing Alternative Fuels Training since 1995 ATTE is the Statewide Training Solution We make the complicated Simple!
  • Slide 11 - Computerized Engine Management Cummins John Deere Detroit Caterpillar We have decades of experience on CEM systems
  • Slide 12 - Electronic Engine Fuel Management Systems DETROIT DIESEL DDEC& GFI SYSTEMS ATT provided training for the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta
  • Slide 13 - Customized Training Programs: In-Center seminars held in a manufacturer-style classroom environment with an attached lab
  • Slide 14 - Customized Training Programs: OEM trainers for Kenworth & Peterbilt LNG drayage trucks We WROTE the program!!
  • Slide 15 - Live Engine Training on CNG & LNG Demonstrators: Hands-on Training with Heavy Duty electronics training engines Cummins ISL G CNG/LNG Cummins/Westport GX LNG DDEC IV series 50/60G John Deere We WROTE the programs!!
  • Slide 16 - Natural Gas Safety We stress safety & regulations Cylinder Safety Inspection
  • Slide 17 - Natural Gas Properties Odorless Odorant (Ethyl Mercaptan) added Colorless Lighter than air Flammability range: 5-15% Compare with: diesel 1-6%, propane 2.2-9.5%, hydrogen 4.1-74% High auto-ignition temperature 900-1170°F Non-toxic Displaces oxygen
  • Slide 18 - Natural Gas Vehicle Storage Compressed Natural Gas: CNG Up to 3600- 5000 psi High pressure storage vessel 200:1 STP storage volume Liquefied Natural Gas: LNG Cryogenic temperatures (-250°F) up to 230 psi Well insulated storage vessel 600:1 STP storage volume
  • Slide 19 - Compressed Natural Gas Considerations Fueling infrastructure Strong Engine type SI or dual fuel Vehicle range Cylinder quantity and configuration Fast fill or slow fill
  • Slide 20 - Compressed Natural Gas High pressure gas cylinders Flexible sizes and configurations Light weight (relative to LNG tanks) Safety Extreme high pressures Frequent CNG system inspections
  • Slide 21 - Cylinder Type 1 All steel or aluminum construction 100% pressure is held by the metal Vulnerable to rust and corrosion Type 1 Cascade
  • Slide 22 - Cylinder Type 2 Hoop-wrapped aluminum or steel 55% pressure is held by metal, 45% is held by the wrap Vulnerable to corrosion and wrap damage
  • Slide 23 - Cylinder Type 3 Fully wrapped aluminum 80% pressure is held by the wrap, 20% is held by the metal Vulnerable to cuts and abrasion
  • Slide 24 - Cylinder Type 4 All composite cylinder with a plastic liner 100% pressure is held by composite wrap Liner sealed to metal domes used for valve threads Light weight, vulnerable to impact & cuts
  • Slide 25 - Liquefied Natural Gas Considerations Fueling infrastructure In development Mobile units available Engine type HPDI, SI or duel fuel Vehicle range LNG tank weight and size Vehicle utilization should be frequent
  • Slide 26 - Liquefied Natural Gas Cryogenic storage tank Somewhat limited configurations and sizes Safety Extreme cold temperature Down to - 250°F Pressures up to 230 psi Robust design
  • Slide 27 - Liquefied Natural Gas Tanks Stainless steel construction Vacuum insulation Specialized valves and components Sizing typically 50- 150 gallons Two distinct types Integrated LNG pump and vaporizer Pressure flow with external vaporizer
  • Slide 28 - Liquefied Natural Gas Tanks Integrated LNG pump and vaporizer Utilization of any temperature LNG Up to 5000 psi CNG output Electronically regulated HPDI equipped engines
  • Slide 29 - Liquefied Natural Gas Tanks Pressure flow with external vaporizer Requires utilization of “warm” LNG Up to tank pressure output < 230 psi Mechanical regulation SI or dual fuel equipped engines
  • Slide 30 - Natural Gas Engines Westport HD15 CWI ISL G CWI ISX12 G Other engines/ options John Deere Detroit Diesel CAP dual fuel
  • Slide 31 - Westport HD15 Engine 15 liter compression ignition Direct injection diesel pilot Up to 475 HP, 1750 lb-ft torque Active emissions aftertreatment system
  • Slide 32 - CWI ISL G Engine 8.9 liter spark ignition Mass air/ gas electronic fuel injection Up to 320 HP, 1000 lb-ft torque Passive three way catalyst emissions system
  • Slide 33 - CWI ISX12 G Engine 12 liter spark ignition Mass air/ gas electronic fuel injection Up to 400 HP, 1450 lb-ft torque Passive three way catalyst emissions system
  • Slide 34 - How does Natural Gas work in the Engine?
  • Slide 35 - Operating Pressures and Safety Non-toxic Lighter than air CNG can displace oxygen CNG highly flammable? Must be contained to be dangerous Window of flammability very narrow No open flames in the shop Safest fuel of all other fuels Pressure in system must be respected
  • Slide 36 - Major Components of a Compressed Natural Gas System
  • Slide 37 - Fill Valve and Coalescent Filter NGV1 Fuel fill device needs to match pressure of cylinder Must have dust cap installed after filling vehicle Coalescing filter can be on fill inlet or supply line
  • Slide 38 - One-Way Check Valve Allows fuel to flow in one direction only Usually on fill line to prevent leakage in case of drive-away
  • Slide 39 - Fuel Storage Cylinders High pressure storage 4 different types available Several pressures available Should all be matching pressure 3600 PSI Type 2 3000 PSI Type 4
  • Slide 40 - Cylinder Shut-Off Valve Caution: pressure may still be present! Isolates cylinder for servicing Special tool needed to open dead electronic valves Destroys seals in valve
  • Slide 41 - Pressure Relief Device (PRD) Releases in case of excessive heat or pressure Mounted on cylinder IN DIRECT PRESSURE One-time failure--- vented to outside of vehicle Cannot be removed and reused on another cylinder Special design for type 4—all composite cylinders
  • Slide 42 - Manual Shut-Off Valve (Quarter Turn) Shuts off fuel to engine compartment Emergency shut-off accessible from outside
  • Slide 43 - Stainless Steel Fuel Lines Seamless Stainless Steel Lines Fittings and lines must be rated to withstand 3 times their system pressure Relief loops to prevent vibration failures Some vehicles use flexible lines with stainless weave
  • Slide 44 - Pressure Regulator(s) Reduces cylinder pressure to system operating pressure May have two regulators to drop pressure in stages Pressure typically 120 psi or less depending upon system
  • Slide 45 - Shut off Valves (Lock-Offs) Prevents fuel flow unless engine RPM is present Controlled by PCM
  • Slide 46 - Introduces fuel to intake air stream High pressure direct injection Westport GX injector Cummins ISL G Fuel Control Valve Fuel Delivery to Engine
  • Slide 47 - Powerplant & Fueling Options Cummins/Westport ISL-G Natural Gas Engine Cummins/Westport ISX12-G Natural Gas Engine Westport GX 15 liter Diesel/Natural Gas Hybrid Engine
  • Slide 48 - Powerplant & Fueling Options ISL-G 8.9L Natural Gas Engine
  • Slide 49 - Powerplant & Fueling Options Cummins/Westport ISL-G Type - 4-cycle, spark-ignited, inline 6-cylinder, turbocharged 8.9 Liter, coil on plug ignition (300v primary) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG – 3600psi) or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dedicated & Optimized for natural gas fuel (105 parameters) Meets EPA and CARB 2010 emission requirements EGR and Catalyst (stoiciometric) Advertised Horsepower 250–320 hp Peak Torque 660–1,000 lb-ft PM’s differ from diesel
  • Slide 50 - Powerplant & Fueling Options ISX12-G 11.9L Natural Gas Engine
  • Slide 51 - Powerplant & Fueling Options Cummins/Westport ISX12-G Type - 4-cycle, spark-ignited, inline 6-cylinder, turbocharged 11.9 Liter Compressed Natural Gas (CNG – 3600psi) or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dedicated & Optimized for natural gas fuel (stoiciometric) Meets EPA and CARB 2010 emission requirements Advertised Horsepower 330 – 400 hp Peak Torque 1150 – 1450 lb-ft First time available engine braking option Available early 2013
  • Slide 52 - Common-rail diesel fuel pump Hydraulic pump (drives LNG Pump) Fuel conditioning module Control units (firewall mounted) LNG tank and pump (chassis mounted) Fuel injectors (under valve cover) Powerplant & Fueling Options Westport GX 15 liter HPDI Diesel/NG Engine
  • Slide 53 - Powerplant & Fueling Options Westport GX HPDI Diesel/NG Hybrid Type - 4-cycle, pilot ignition, inline 6-cylinder, turbocharged 15 Liter Proprietary Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) design Dedicated & Optimized for natural gas fuel Meets EPA and CARB 2010 emission requirements Advertised Horsepower 400 – 475 hp Peak Torque 1450 – 1750 lb-ft Proven reliability since 2006 Requires PM trap & SCR (urea) injection for EPA/CARB 2010
  • Slide 54 - What Regulations Should I Be Training my students to be aware of?
  • Slide 55 - NFPA 52 -Covers installations of cylinders and components CHP Title 13 -Covers state certification of installations and vehicles CGA 6.4 -Covers visual inspection and qualifications of inspectors ANSI/NGV-2/FMVSS 304 -Covers design, construction and testing of new cylinders Manufacture’s Printed Guidelines -Covers inspection, repair and condemnation Regulations & Guidelines for CNG & LNG Vehicle Operation and Maintenance
  • Slide 56 - NFPA 52 Vehicle Installation Guidelines   Covers proper installation and system safety Hard copy or downloadable “Industry standard” California makes it a law OEM’s adhere to it Fire Dept. recognized Updated every few years - www.nfpa.org
  • Slide 57 - NFPA 52 Sections Administration Referenced Publications Definitions General CNG Requirements & Equipment Qualifications General GH2 Requirements & Equipment Qualifications CNG Engine Fuel Systems Service & Maintenance of GH2 Engine Fuels Systems CNG Compression, Gas Processing, Storage, and Dispensing Systems GH2 Compression, Gas processing, Storage, Dispensing CNG Residential Fueling Facilities LNG Engine Fuel Systems LNG Fueling Facilities LH2 Fueling Facilities LNG Fire Protection Installation Requirements for ASME Tanks for LNG LNG and CNG on Commercial Marine Vessels and Pleasure Craft
  • Slide 58 - CGA 6.4 Inspection Procedures Inspection procedures and damage assessment Criteria for the acceptance or rejection of containers Qualifications of inspectors
  • Slide 59 - Recommended minimum: inspection every 3 or 36,000 miles for life of container Defines 3 levels of damage and appropriate actions for each Provides guidance on what the inspector must look for and how to make service/disposal determinations Manufacturer’s instructions take precedence Proper documentation and labels required CGA 6.4 Inspection Procedures
  • Slide 60 - Compressed Gas Association, Inc. 4221 Walney Road, 5th Floor Chantilly, VA 20151 703-788-2700 www.cganet.com Hard copy or downloadable CGA 6.4 Inspection Procedures In addition, CGA 6.4 will provide what you need to know about: Brackets, straps, and mounting systems as recommended by the container manufacturer Labeling information Appropriate inspection equipment
  • Slide 61 - Facility Considerations NO Open flames or spark emitting equipment Sealed lighting Ventilation requirements Methane detectors and alarms Local laws and regulations vary Each facility should obtain an Engineering survey by a company specializing in CNG facilities to determine what is needed at that location
  • Slide 62 - Facility Considerations Local laws and regulations vary Each facility should obtain an Engineering survey by a company specializing in CNG facilities to determine what is needed at that location
  • Slide 63 - Regulations & Guidelines for CNG & LNG Vehicle Operation and Maintenance Know the codes Consult the experts Questions? Contact one of the Advanced Transportation Technology & Energy Centers statewide THANK YOU

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