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Slide 1 - Allergy: An Overview Salwa Hassan Teama
Slide 2 - Contents Allergy Hypersensitivity Allergy: IgE Mediated: Type I Immunopathogenesis Performed Mediators Food Hypersensitivity Laboratory Tests Prevention Treatment
Slide 3 - Type of hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system. Allergy may involve more the one type of reaction. An allergy is a immune reaction to something that does not affect most other people. Substances that often cause reactions are: Pollen Dust mites Mold spores Pet dander Food Insect stings Medicines ……. Allergy
Slide 4 - Risk factor Host factors; heredity, gender, race, and age. Environmental factor; infectious diseases during early childhood, environmental pollution, allergen levels and dietary changes. Allergy
Slide 5 - Hypersensitivity (hypersensitivity reaction) refers to undesirable immune reactions produced by the normal immune system. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host. Hypersensitivity reactions: four types; based on the mechanisms involved and time taken for the reaction, a particular clinical condition (disease) may involve more than one type of reaction. Hypersensitivity
Slide 6 - Classification of Immunologic Reactions (Gel and Coombs)
Slide 7 - Hypersensitivity Reactions
Slide 8 - Allergy Ig E mediated (Type I hypersensitivity) Non Ig E mediated Allergy
Slide 9 - Overreaction to an allergen that is contact through skin, inhaled through lung, swallowed or injected. Triggered by harmless substances such as; pollen, dust, animal danders, food, … can also occur as a result of drug or bee stings or stings from other insects (an allergen). An allergen; an antigen that causes allergy. Either inhaled, ingested, .. Can be complete protein antigens (Pollen and animal dander) or low molecular weight proteins. IgE Mediated: Type I
Slide 10 - Atopy is the genetic predisposition to make IgE antibodies in response to allergen exposure. Etiology is unknown but there is strong evidence for a complex of genes with a variable degree of expression encoding protein factors. Allergic rhinitis, allergic athma, atopic dermatitis are the most common manifestation of atopy. Allergic gastroenteropathy is rara. These manifestation may coexist in the same patients at different times. Atopy can be asymptomatic. Atopy
Slide 11 - Genes Identified to date in Atopy
Slide 12 - Proteins Foreign serum Vaccines Plant pollens Rye grass Ragweed Timothy grass Birch trees Drugs Penicillin Sulfonamides Local anethetics Salicylates Foods Nuts Seafood Eggs Peas, beans Milk Insect products Bee venom Wasp venom Ant venom Cockroach calyx Dust mites Mold spores Animal hair and dander Common allergens associated with type I hypersenstivity
Slide 13 - While first-time exposure may only produce a mild reaction, repeated exposures may lead to more serious reactions. Once a person is sensitized (has had a previous sensitivity reaction), even a very limited exposure to a very small amount of allergen can trigger a severe reaction. Most occur within seconds or minutes after exposure to the allergen, but some can occur after several hours, particularly if the allergen causes a reaction after it is partially digested. In very rare cases, reactions develop after 24 hours. Mechanism
Slide 14 - Immunopathogenesis Both mast cells and basophils are involved in immunopathogenesis of IgE mediated diseases. Mast cells and basophils have a high affinity IgE cell membrane receptors for IgE. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by IgE, but T and B cells play important roles in the development of these antibodies
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Slide 17 - Mast cell are abundant in the mucosa of the respiratory, gastrointestinal tracts and in the skin, where atopic reaction localize. Mast cell release mediator cause the pathophysiology of the immediate and late phases of atopic diseases. Mast Cell
Slide 18 - Mast Cell Activation
Slide 19 - Mast cell Classic Allergic Reaction Flushing Hypotension Increased mucus production Pruritus Smooth muscle contraction Vascular leakage Late –phase Reaction Eosinophil infiltration Neutrophil infiltration Fibrin deposition Mononuclear infiltration Tissue destruction Minutes Hours
Slide 20 - Histamine: is one well-known mediator. This mediator acts on histamine 1 (H1) and histamine 2 (H2) receptors to cause: contraction of smooth muscles of the airway and GI tract, increased vascular permeability and vasodilation, nasal mucus production, airway mucus production, pruritus, cutaneous vasodilation, and gastric acid secretion. Serotonin: increased vascular permeability and contraction of smooth Muscles. Tryptase: is a major protease released by mast cells; its exact role is uncertain, but it can cleave C3 and C3a. Tryptase is found in all human mast cells but in few other cells and thus is a good marker of mast cell activation. Proteoglycans: include heparin and chondroitin sulfate. Chemotactic factors …………………. Performed Mediators/ Primary Mediators
Slide 21 - Performed Mediators/ Secondary Mediators Platelet activating factor Leukotriens Prostaglandinin Bardykainin Cytokines IL1 ,TNF IL2,IL3,IL4,IL5,L6
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Slide 23 - Important Clinical Aspects of Immediate Hypersensitivity
Slide 24 - Food Hypersensitivity Source: http://www.allergycentre.com.my/index.html
Slide 25 - Food Hypersensitivity Source: http://www.allergycentre.com.my/index.html
Slide 26 - Immunopathologic responses into the following 7 categories: Inactivation/activation antibody reactions Cytotoxic or cytolytic antibody reactions Immune-complex reactions Allergic reactions T-cell cytotoxic reactions Delayed hypersensitivity reactions Granulomatous reactions This system accounts for the fact that multiple components of the immune system can be involved in various types of hypersensitivity reactions. For example, T cells play an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic reactions . In addition, the term immediate hypersensitivity is somewhat of a misnomer because it does not account for the late-phase reaction or for the chronic allergic inflammation that often occurs with these types of reaction. References & more: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/136217-overview#a0104 References: Sell S, Rich RR, Fleisher TA, et al, eds. Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice. ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby-Year Book; 1996:449-77 Immunopathologic Response Classification System Proposed by Sell et al., 1996
Slide 27 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis involves inhalation of an antigen. This leads to an exaggerated immune response (hypersensitivity). Type III hypersensitivity and type IV hypersensitivity occur in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Allergic contact dermatitis. … Allergic Hypersensitivity: Non IgE Mediated
Slide 28 - Comparison of Allergy with other Responses
Slide 29 - Laboratory Diagnosis IgE-Mediated Allergies
Slide 30 - The cutaneous test (prick test, puncture test epicutaneous test) Routine diagnosis in diseases (atopic or anaphylactic). A single drop of concentrated aqueous allergen extract placed on the skin which is then pricked lightly with a needle point at the center of the drop. After 20 minutes the reaction is graded and recorded Skin Tests
Slide 31 - IgE levels may be elevated in patients who are atopic, but the level does not necessarily correlate with clinical symptoms. The tryptase level can be elevated, which is indicative of mast cell degranulation. False-negative results can occur. An elevated eosinophil count may be observed in patients with atopic disease. RAST/CAP RAST/CAP FEIA (fluorenzymeimmunoassay): measures antigen-specific IgE. Laboratory Tests
Slide 32 - Nasal smear Elevated eosinophil levels can be consistent with allergic rhinitis. Spirometry or pulmonary function tests offer an objective means of assessingasthma. Peak-flow meters can also be used for this and can be used by patients at home to monitor their status Nasal smear/ Spirometry
Slide 33 - Standardized diagnostic allergens are not available for drugs
Slide 34 - Prevention Avoid triggers such as foods and medications,…… that have caused an allergic reaction, even a mild one. This includes detailed questioning about ingredients when eating away from home. Ingredient labels should also be carefully examined. A medical ID tag should be worn by people who know that they have serious allergic reaction. If any history of a serious allergic reactions, carry emergency medications (such as diphenihydramine and injectable epinephrine. Do not use your injectable epinephrine on anyone else. They may have a condition (such as a heart problem) that could be affected by this drug.
Slide 35 - Treatment
Slide 36 - Allergic diseases: in Medical Immunology .eds ( Tristram G.Parslow, Daniel P. A Stites, Abba I.Terr.and John B. Imboden), 814 pages tenth edition. McGraw-Hill/Appleton & Lange; 10 edition 2001) (March 23, ISBN-13: 978-0838563007 ISBN-10: 0838563007 Anaphylaxis and Urticaria: in Medical Immunology .eds ( Tristram G.Parslow, Daniel P. A Stites, Abba I.Terr.and John B. Imboden), 814 pages tenth edition. McGraw-Hill/Appleton & Lange; 10 edition 2001) (March 23, ISBN-13: 978-0838563007 ISBN-10: 0838563007 Adkinson NF Jr. Middleton’s Allergy: Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby; 2003. Rakel RE. Textbook of Family Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 2007.  Miriam K Anand, Michael A Kaliner, et al., Advances in Immunology. N Engl. J.Med,. vol. 344, No.1. January4, 2001. Available from. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/136217-overview#a0104 Sell S, Rich RR, Fleisher TA, et al, eds. Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice. ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby-Year Book; 1996:449-77 References &Further Reading
Slide 37 - SariSabban. Allergy Pathway. 1September 2011The http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Allergy_Pathway.jpg Wolfgang Ihloff. Allergy skin.30.1.2008. testing. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Allergy_skin_testing.JPG Mast cell. Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mast_cells.jpg Wenliang Zhang. Universty of Geogorgia. Immunology. The immune system.. http://wenliang.myweb.uga.edu/mystudy/immunology/ScienceOfImmunology/Hypersensitivitydiseases.html Dr. M. Yadav. Food Hypersensitivity. http://www.allergycentre.com.my/index.html Image Citation
Slide 38 - THANK YOU