Slide 6 -
Pathophysiology The mediators that are immediately released include histamine, tryptase, chymase, kinins, and heparin.
The mast cells quickly synthesize other mediators, including leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2.
These mediators, via various interactions, ultimately lead to the symptoms of rhinorrhea (ie, nasal congestion, sneezing, itching, redness, tearing, swelling, ear pressure, postnasal drip).
Mucous glands are stimulated, leading to increased secretions. Vascular permeability is increased, leading to plasma exudation.
Vasodilation occurs, leading to congestion and pressure. Sensory nerves are stimulated, leading to sneezing and itching. All of these events can occur in minutes; hence, this reaction is called the early, or immediate, phase of the reaction