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Slide 1 - Grazie per aver scelto di utilizzare a scopo didattico questo materiale delle Guidelines 2011 libra.Le ricordiamo che questo materiale è di proprietà dell’autore e fornito come supporto didattico per uso personale.
Slide 2 - MANAGEMENT OF THE PATIENT WITH RHINITIS AND ASTHMA Giovanni Passalacqua Allergy & Respiratory Diseases Dept.Internal Medicine- University of Genoa ITALY
Slide 3 - Moderate-severe One or more: . No sleep disturbances daily activity limitations impaired work or school activity bothersome symptoms Persistent . > 4 days/week . AND > 4 weeks MILD All the following No sleep disturbance No daily activity limitations normal work/school Activity No bothersome symptom Intermittent . < 4 days/week . or < 4 weeks ARIA Classification
Slide 4 - Diagnostic tools. The problem Differently from asthma, there is no reliable or Standardized objective measurement. No objective evaluation of severity No tool is capable to discriminate allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. No tool is capable to discriminate healthy and rhinitics
Slide 6 - Rhinitis: comorbidities RHINITIS ASTHMA
Slide 7 - Allergic rhinobronchitis: the asthma-allergic rhinitis link. Simons FERJ Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Sep;104(3 Pt 1):534-40. United airways disease: therapeutic aspects. Passalacqua G, Ciprandi G, Canonica GWThorax. 2000 Oct;55 Suppl 2:S26-7. Linking upper and lower respiratory airways. Aubier M. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 83: 431-434.
Slide 8 - UNITED AIRWAYS EPIDEMIOLOGY Comorbidity rhinitis asthma Natural history Rhinitis as risk factor for asthma
Slide 9 - Pariente Leynaert Wright Settipane Sibbad France ECRHS Tucson Providence England adults adults children adolesc adults 1367 262 129 162 319 rhin. 13.4 no rhin. 3.8 rhin. 22.5 no rhin. 4 rhin. 32 no rhin. 5 rhin. 10.5 no rhin. 3.6 SAR. 23 PAR 26 both 43 STUDY LOCUS SUBJECTS % ASTHMA Leynaert et al. JACI 2000 93% of asthmatics have concomitant rhinitis Kapsali T et al, JACI 1998
Slide 10 - 591 patients 502 controls allergic to pollens, mite, epithelia 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 % subjects contr mild severe mild severe intermittent persistent % pazienti Prevalence of asthma (physician diagnosed) in rhinitis Bousquet, CEA 2005
Slide 11 - Shaaban, Lancet 2008
Slide 12 - Allergic rhinitis as a predictor for wheezing onset in school-aged children. Rochat et al, JACI 2010 Cohort of 1,314 children followed from birth to 13 yrs
Slide 13 - UNITED AIRWAYS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Naso-broncghial reflex Physical filter Nonspecific hyperresponsiveness IMMUNOLOGY Allergic inflammation Bone marrow response Neuroinflammation
Slide 14 - Bronchial biopsioes after Specific provocation in patients with rhinitis or asthma Crimi E et al, JAP 2001 ASTHMA RHINITIS ALONE
Slide 15 - Nasal allergen challenge Increases bronchial reactivity Induces bronchial inflammation Littell NT, Changes in airways resistance following nasal provocation. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990 Corren J Changes in bronchial responsiveness following nasal provocation with allergens. JACI 1992 Small P ET AL The effects of allergen-induced nasal provocation on pulmonary function in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Am J Rhinol 1989
Slide 16 - Bronchial endoscopic challenge With allergen
Slide 17 - The nose-lung interaction in allergic rhinitis and asthma: united airways disease G.Passalacqua, G.Ciprandi & G.W.Canonica 2004 Asthma and rhinitis as different Aspects of a sinlge disorder
Slide 18 - Perennial rhinitis: independent factor for developing asthma Leynaert et al, J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999
Slide 19 - Children with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis have a similar risk of asthma. Chawes et al JACI 2010
Slide 20 - naso-bronchial reflex INFLAMMATION allergen cytokines bone marrow nose bronchi bronchial hyperreactivity physical filter function adhesion molecules viral infection
Slide 21 - PATIENTS WITH PERSISTENT RHINITIS MUST BE ASSESSED FOR THE POSSIBILITY OF ASTHMA HISTORY/EXAMINATION Spirometry IF POSITIVE obstruction normal Assess reversibility Nonspecific Bronchial provocation Do you have recurrent wheezing? Do you have dry cough? Do you experience cough after exercise? Do you have chest tightness?
Slide 22 - THERAPY Immunotherapy Nasal steroids Antihistamines Combination therapy UNITED AIRWAYS
Slide 23 - mild intermittent Mild persistent Moderate- severe intermittent Moderate- severe persistent Allergen avoidance Decongestant (<10 days) Nasal steroid 2nd Generation antihistamine Immunotherapy TREATMENT OF ALLERGIC RHINITIS ARIA -Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma Cromones Antileukotrienes (if asthma)
Slide 24 - Brozek JL, Bousquet J, Baena-Cagnani CE, Bonini S, Canonica GW et al. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines: 2010 revision. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2010; 126: 466-476 69 CLINICAL QUESTIONS ON THE TREATMENT RECOMMENDATION: CONDITIONAL/STRONG LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: HIGH/MODERATE/LOW/VERY LOW
Slide 25 - Weak: 84% high moderate low Very low Strenght of recommendation Grade of evidence
Slide 26 - BASIC QUESTIONS: Does the treatment of rhinitis affect comorbid asthma? Any effect on the natural history?
Slide 27 - Cruz, Allergy 2008
Slide 28 - Untreated rhinitis increases the risk of asthma attacks. Bousquet, Clin Exp Allergy 2005
Slide 29 - Safety and efficacy of desloratadine 5 mg in asthma patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and nasal congestion. Berger et al. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002 14 8 2 15 5 30 WKS 1-2 WKS 1-4 Mean % reduction of AM instantaneous asthma score Mean % reduction of AM/PM asthma score * *
Slide 30 - Taramarcaz, Cochrane 2008
Slide 31 - ppt slide no 31 content not found
Slide 32 - Effects of mometasone furoate on the Quality of Life: a randomised placebo controlled trial in persistent allergic rhinitis and intermittent asthma using the Rhinasthma questionnaire       Ilaria Baiardini1, Elisa Villa1, Anthi Rogkakou1, Sara Pellegrini1, Micaela Bacic1, Enrico Compalati1, Fulvio Braido1, Cristina Le Grazie2, Giorgio Walter Canonica1, Giovanni Passalacqua1 Clin Exp Allergy 2011
Slide 33 - Run in 1 sett 52 MFNS N= 26 Placebo N= 26 V1 V2 V3
Slide 34 - Primary outcome: Global Summary (GS) of Rhinasthma, Changes at 2 and 4 weeks versus baseline Secondary outcomes: Changes vs baseline in the 3 domains of Rhinasthma Upper airways (UA) Lower airways (LA) Respiratory Allergy Impact (RAI) Nasal symptom score Nasal + asthma scores
Slide 35 - Enrolled n = 57 Randomized n = 52 Mometasone n = 26 Placebo n = 26 Completed n = 25 Completed n = 22 Discontinuations n = 4 Adverse event, n = 1 Consent withdrawn, n = 2 Treatment failure, n = 1 Discontinuations n = 1 Consent withdrawn Screening failures n = 5 Entry criteria not satisfied, n = 1 Refused to continue for reason unrelated to study drug, n=2; Privacy Form not signed, n = 2
Slide 36 - Primary endpoint: Rhinasthma Global Score Mean changes from baseline (V2) to endpoint (V4) ITT Population p<0.001 Mean change vs baseline - 12 - 10 - 8 - 6 - 4 - 2 0 2 MFNS Placebo - 10,3 0,4
Slide 37 - 5 10 15 20 25 30 <.001 <.001 baseline week 2 week 4 Rhinasthma GS mean MFNS Placebo Rhinasthma global summary
Slide 38 - 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 baseline week 2 week 4 baseline week 2 week 4 baseline week 2 week 4 <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001 UAS LAS RAI MFNS Placebo
Slide 39 - Global Symptom Score (GSS) Weekly score Mean score * * 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 GSS Placebo GSS MFNS basale 1 2 3 4
Slide 40 - Treating persistent rhinitis with mometasone furoate nasal spray resulted in a significant improvement in QoL for both upper and lower respiratory tract domains There was a significant improvement of the global symptom scores (rhinitis + asthma) No significant change in rhinitis symptoms when analyzed separately (trial powered on the basis of the primary outcome) Good safety profile Conclusions
Slide 42 - SYMPTOMS MEDICATIONS Meta-analysis of the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy in allergic asthma in pediatric patients, 3 to 18 years of age. M Penagos, G Passalacqua, E Compalati, C Baena-Cagnani, S Orozco, A Pedroza GW Canonica
Slide 43 - ASTHMA SYMPTOMS SYMPTOM DETERIORATION Abramson, Puy, Weiner Cochrane 2010
Slide 44 - Effect of specific immunotherapy added to pharmacologic treatment and allergen avoidance in asthmatic patients allergic to house dust mite   Maestrelli et al, JACI 2004
Slide 45 - PLACEBO SLIT WINTER 99 SPRING 99 SPRING 01 WINTER 99 SPRING 99 SPRING 01 0.008 0.005 10 5 PC20 mgmL 0.005 Pajno GB & Passalacqua G, Allergy 2004 Effect of SLIT to Parietaria on seasonal BHR in children
Slide 46 - CONCLUSIONS Based on the literature, SIT is effective in allergic asthma associated with rhinitis, and should be used in association with standard medications SIT reduces bronchial hyperresponsiveness, that is an indirect marker of bronchial inflammation.
Slide 47 - RISK FACTORS Based on nonfatal reactions Uncontrolled asthma Severe asthma Use of betablockers Rush immunotherapy Use of new vials Technical errors Based on fatal reactions Uncontrolled asthma Severe asthma Use of betablockers Rush immunotherapy Build-up phase Use of new vials Technical errors Estimated incidence of fatalities < 1/2.000.000 injections
Slide 49 - Allergic rhinitis as a predictor for wheezing onset in school-aged children. Rochat et al, JACI 2010 Cohort of 1,314 children followed from birth to 13 yrs
Slide 50 - MARTINEZ,PEDERSEN Long-Term Inhaled Corticosteroids in Preschool Children at High Risk for Asthma Guilbert T, NEJM 2006
Slide 51 - Specific immunotherapy has long-term preventive effect of seasonal and perennial asthma: 10-year follow-up on the PAT study Jacobssen, Allergy 2007
Slide 52 - SLIT NO SLIT 37 8 26 18 NO ASTHMA ASTHMA PRESENCE OF ASTHMA AFTER 3 YEARS Coseasonal SLIT reduces the development of asthma in children with allergic rhinitis. Novembre E. et al, JACI 2004 Randomized, open, controlled 79 children Allergic rhinitis only Follow-up: 3 yrs
Slide 53 - PREVENTIVE EFFECTS OF SUBLINGUAL IMMUNOTHERAPY IN CHILDHOOD. AN OPEN RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY     MAURIZIO MAROGNA MD1 , D.TOMASSETTI1, A. BERNASCONI1, F.COLOMBO1, ALESSANDRO MASSOLO BS2, A. DI RIENZO BUSINCO4, GIORGIO W CANONICA MD3, GIOVANNI PASSALACQUA MD3 AND SALVATORE TRIPODI MD4     1 Pneumology Unit, Cuasso al Monte, Macchi Hospital Foundation, Varese 2 Department of Animal Biology, University of Pavia, Pavia 3 Allergy & Respiratory Diseases,Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa University 4          Pediatric Allergy Unit, S. Pertini Hospital, Rome AAAI 2008, 101: 261
Slide 54 - Diary card Visit Skin test MCh challenge 144 SLIT 72 CONTROLS 14 dropout 6 dropout 1 year BASELINE RANDOMIZED PHASE Year 1 PATIENTS 216 Year 2 Year 3 * * * * * * * * * * * * 130 SLIT 66 CONT
Slide 55 - CONTROLS NS *** *** baseline 3rd year PERSISTENT ASTHMA 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 % PATIENTS
Slide 56 - CONCLUSIONS Patients with rhinitis should be investigated also for asthma Uncontrolled Rhinitis may affect the severity/control of co-morbid asthma. In patients with rhinitis and asthma, treating rhinitis can improve asthma. Specific immunotherapy, either SCIT or SLIT, is of benefit also for asthma.
Slide 57 - ARIA RECOMMENDATIONS 1- Patients with persistent AR must be assessed for asthma 2- Patients with asthma should be assessed for rhinitis 3- The optimal strategy must combine the treatment of lower and upper airways, aslo in terms of safety and costs