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Published on : Dec 09, 2014
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Slide 1 - Biodiesel From Microalgae A Solution for a Sustainable San Luis Obospo County Mike Sass Eric Amendt Ryan Gleim Tim McLenegan Tim Whitacre April 29, 2005
Slide 2 - Outline Biodiesel from algae Feasibility of algae Oil collection and refining Application to our county
Slide 3 - Algae Overview Tim McLenegan Eric Amendt
Slide 4 - Algae and Biodiesel Algae Biodiesel is a good replacement for standard crop Biodiesels like soy and canola Up to 70% of algae biomass is usable oils Algae does not compete for land and space with other agricultural crops Algae can survive in water of high salt content and use water that was previously deemed unusable
Slide 5 - Storing the Sun’s Energy (Photosynthesis) What is needed Sunlight CO2 Nutrients Storage of Energy Lipids and oils Carbohydrates
Slide 6 - What affects oil production? Climate Cold weather reduces algae oil production Overcast days reduce sunlight and lower oil production Nutrients Depletion of Nitrogen and Silicate
Slide 7 - Controlling Nutrients Nitrogen Aids in cell division Silicate Aids in cell wall production Depleting Nutrients Starving the algae of these two nutrients reduce the rate of cell division Oil production remains constant Results in an increase in the oil to mass ratio
Slide 8 - The Algae Pond
Slide 9 - Mass Production of Algae
Slide 10 - Choosing an Algae Important characteristics of Algae High % of total biomass is oil Maintains a high % of oil even under stress Compatible with the San Luis Obispo climate documents/Verslag2biodieselBaarnschLyceum.pdf -
Slide 11 - What Type of Algae Botryococcus braunii Converts 61% of its biomass into oil Drops to only 31% oil under stress Grows best between 22-25oC (71-77oF) documents/Verslag2biodieselBaarnschLyceum.pdf -
Slide 12 - Where To Grow It Extensions onto our water treatment plants Clean up our waste and generate fuel Agriculture runoff Exploit the county’s many farms and vineyards Soda Lake Salt lake east of Santa Margarita Vast open space of Carrizo Plain Only has water in winter/spring months National Monument status may prevent development
Slide 13 - Feasibility Tim Whitacre
Slide 14 - Feasibility Is it too good to be true? DOE concluded a 16-year study of algal biomass in 1996 (and wrote a 328-page report) Conducted large-scale tests in California, New Mexico and Hawaii With good temperatures, could harvest 50 grams of algae per sq. meter per day Used a 1,000 m2 pond for 1 year Research stopped due to budget cuts UNH paper may hopefully rekindle research With more research/funding, it can be done
Slide 15 - Comments from NREL “Projections for future costs of petroleum are a moving target. DOE expects petroleum costs to remain relatively flat over the next 20 years. Expecting algal biodiesel to compete with such cheap petroleum prices is unrealistic. Without some mechanism for monetizing its environmental benefits (such as carbon taxes), algal biodiesel is not going to get off the ground.”
Slide 16 - Comments from NREL “Engineering design and cost studies have been done throughout the course of the ASP, with ever increasing realism in the design assumptions and cost estimates. The last set of cost estimates for the program was developed in 1995. These estimates showed that algal biodiesel cost would range from $1.40 to $4.40 per gallon based on current and long-term projections for the performance of the technology. Even with assumptions of $50 per ton of CO2 as a carbon credit, the cost of biodiesel never competes with the projected cost of petroleum diesel.”
Slide 17 - $ Per Barrel
Slide 18 - Show Me The Money!!! The current price of diesel is growing What does this mean for Biodiesel?
Slide 19 - Michael Briggs of University of New Hampshire Production ability 37,500 gallons per hectare of desert land per year Pond construction $80,000 per hectare Operating Costs $12,000 per hectare
Slide 20 - NREL results Benemann and Oswald (1996) Capital Investment $69,000 to $104,400 per hectare Operating Costs $21,370 to $32,320 per hectare per year Algal Oil Costs $39 to $69 per barrel $0.93 to $1.65 per gallon 16,000 to 32,000 gallons per hectare per year
Slide 21 - Cost per hectare
Slide 22 - ppt slide no 22 content not found
Slide 23 - Processing Costs $0.30 to $1.00 per gallon Without taxes or profit Michael Briggs $0.32 per gallon of biodiesel Real World $1.23 - $2.65 per gallon of biodiesel
Slide 24 - San Luis Costs The startup costs per processing plant would be the same as noted in the fall presentation on Biodiesel. $15,000,000 per 30,000,000 gallon plants. Our research shows that the cost per algal pond would be greater.
Slide 25 - Assuming $0.10 profit per gallon Total Costs
Slide 26 - Oil Collection and Refining Mike Sass
Slide 27 - Pressing oil from the algae Dry the algae and press the oil from it. Can retrieve up to 70% of the oil. While drying must prevent the algae from becoming contaminated. Cheapest and simplest method
Slide 28 - Chemical Oil Extraction Use hexane solvents to remove the oil. Hexane is a neurotoxin. Must be careful when using. Removes oil out of almost all things.
Slide 29 - Super Critical Oil Extraction Most efficient method. Uses carbon dioxide at critical pressure and temperature (CO2 is almost a liquid). Carbon dioxide. Rapid diffusion of the oil. Very expensive process.
Slide 30 - TAG (triacylglycerol) Three chains of fatty acids attached to a glycerol Natural oil from the algae
Slide 31 - Transesterification Start with triacylglycerol (TAG) End up with ester alcohol (biodiesel)
Slide 32 - Three ways to produce biodiesel Base catalyzed transesterification with alcohol. Acid catalyzed esterification with methanol. Convert the oil to fatty acids. Then acid catalyze to alkyl esters.
Slide 33 - Base Catalyzed with Alcohol Most common process Most economical Low pressure (20psi) Low temperature (150oF) No intermediate steps High conversion rate (98%)
Slide 34 - General Process
Slide 35 - Application To Our County Ryan Gleim
Slide 36 - RTA Current County Bus System CCAT and SCAT
Slide 37 - Fuel Requirements
Slide 38 - Biodiesel Requirements Using Biodiesel in current diesel busses
Slide 39 - Diesel Hybrid GM Hybrid Bus
Slide 40 - Hybrid Bus Statistics GM Hybrid Bus EP system Clean Hybrid technology Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide reduction of about 90% Nitrous oxide reduction of about 50% Already in service in many cities Up to 60% improved fuel economy
Slide 41 - Calculations Adjusted Using Biodiesel in HYBRID diesel busses
Slide 42 - Conclusion Algae is a very efficient means of producing biodiesel The oil production from algae farms is feasible and scalable Further research necessary to unlock full potential of algae
Slide 43 - Questions