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Slide 1 - Ch. 14 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers Milbank High School
Slide 2 - Chapter Objectives 1.What is the general structure for an alcohol? A phenol? An ether?   2.What are functional groups? Why are they useful in the study of organic chemistry?  3.What structural feature is used to classify alcohols as primary, secondary, or tertiary?   4.How are alcohols named by the common and IUPAC systems?   5.Why are the boiling points of alcohols higher than those of ethers and alkanes of similar molar masses?
Slide 3 - Objectives Con’t 6.Why are alcohols and ethers of four carbons or less soluble in water while comparable alkanes are not?   7.How are alcohols prepared from alkenes? What is Markovnikov's rule?   8.How do various alcohols affect the human body?    9.What are the major reactions of alcohols? 10.What product is formed by the oxidation of a primary alcohol? A secondary alcohol? A tertiary alcohol?
Slide 4 - Objectives Con’t 11.Describe the structure and uses of some common polyhydric alcohols. 12.Describe the structure and uses of some phenols. 13.How does the structural difference between alcohols and ethers affect their physical characteristics and reactivity? 14.How are simple ethers named? Describe the structure and uses of some ethers.
Slide 5 - Sec. 14.1 General Formulas and Functional Groups Two of the three families contain a hydroxyl group (OH) Alcohols Phenols Ethers Often made from alcohols and phenols All are considered organic derivatives of water.
Slide 6 - General Formulas Bent molecule Central oxygen atom Hydrogen and alkyl group attached (R) or an aryl group (Ar)
Slide 7 - General Formulas Con’t Alcohols R-O-H Phenols Ar-OH Benzene ring with an OH Ethers R-O-R
Slide 8 - Functional Groups Group of atoms which confers characteristic properties on a family of organic compounds OH COOH Alkanes: none
Slide 9 - Sec. 14.2 Classification and Nomenclature of Alcohols Properties of alcohols depend on the arrangement of the carbon atoms of the molecule Primary (1°) carbon atom Secondary (2°) carbon atom Tertiary (3°) carbon atom
Slide 10 - Classification and Nomenclature of Alcohols Primary Alcohol RCH2OH Secondary Alcohol R2CHOH Tertiary Alcohol R3COH
Slide 11 - IUPAC Naming Name the longest continous chain of carbons containing the –OH group Number which carbon the –OH is attached to End name in –ol If more than one hydroxyl group, use suffixes –diol, -triol, etc.
Slide 12 - Physical Properties of Alcohols Replacement of hydrogen with a hydroxyl group greatly changes properties Not as homologous as alkanes Higher boiling points Due to strong intermolecular attractions Solubility The more compact the molecule is, the more soluble it is 4-5 carbons or less—soluble in water
Slide 13 - Sec. 14.4 Preparation of Alcohols Hydration Reactions
Slide 14 - Markovnikov’s Rule The hydroxyl group goes on the carbon with fewer hydrogens
Slide 15 - Production of alcohols Methanol 1.7 billion gallons produced a year Used in formaldehyde, acetic acid, fuels (MTBE), silicones, refrigerants
Slide 16 - Production of Alcohols Ethanol Produced from sugars or starches by fermentation C6H10O5  C6H12O6 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2 (Enzymes as catalysts) It’s the alcohol that’s found in those certain beverages that people shouldn’t drink
Slide 17 - Production of Alcohols Con’t Wines 12% ethanol Champagnes 14-20% ethanol Beers 4% ethanol Whiskey 50% ethanol Proof spirit: alcoholic content of a beverage, twice that of the alcohol content by volume (whiskey: 100 proof)
Slide 18 - Sec. 14.5 Physiological Effects of Alcohols LD50 (Lethal dose to 50% of a population) Tested on animals Varies per species though See table 14.5
Slide 19 - Methanol Can cause permanent blindness or death in high amounts Vapors are very dangerous as well
Slide 20 - Ethanol Toxic to humans Acute poisoning kills several hundred a year (drinking contests) Long term poisioning Most serious drug problem in US 40 times more addicts than heroin
Slide 21 - Isopropyl Alcohol Rubbing alcohol Rapid evaporation Antiseptic More toxic than ethanol, but induces vomitting Used for the manufacture of acetone
Slide 22 - Sec. 14.6 Chemical Properties of Alcohols Reactions Occur on the functional groups May involve hydrogen atoms as well Dehydration Oxidation
Slide 23 - Dehydration Removal of water Sulfuric acid as a catalyst Produces: Ether (excess ROH) + water Alkene (excess H2SO4) + water
Slide 24 - Oxidation Result depends on if alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary Primary Produces an aldehyde Then goes through further oxidation to produce a carboxylic acid Secondary Produces a ketone Tertiary No reaction Can’t break the carbon-carbon bond
Slide 25 - Oxidation Con’t
Slide 26 - Sec. 14.7 Multifunctional Alcohols: Glycols and Glycerol More than one hydroxyl group Polyhydric groups Dihydric alcohols Trihydric alcohols
Slide 27 - Glycols Dihydric alcohols 1,2 ethanediol (ethylene glycol) HOCH2CH2OH Two hydroxyl groups—extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding Higher boiling point Used as anti-freeze
Slide 28 - Glycerol Most important trihydric alcohol Syrupy liquid Nontoxic, product of the hydrolysis of fats and oils Nitroglycerin Detonates on slight impact Reaction produces temps of 3000 °C and pressures above 2000 atm
Slide 29 - Sec. 14.8 Phenols Slightly acidic Neutralized by strong bases
Slide 30 - Phenols Used as: Antiseptic Disinfectants First used was pure phenol—proved to be too toxic Methyl derivatives Cresols Creosote
Slide 31 - Phenols Dihydroxybenzenes Components of biochemical molecules
Slide 32 - Sec. 14.9 Ethers Derivatives of water Both hydrogen atoms are replaced Naming Symmetrical Name groups attached and add ether
Slide 33 - Properties Quite inert Although react violently in the air Low boiling points—no hydrogen bonds Diethyl ether Forms a peroxide in air First general anesthetic