This site uses cookies to deliver our services and to show you relevant ads and presentations. By clicking on "Accept", you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and our Terms of Use.
X

Download Alcohols Chemistry PowerPoint Presentation


Login   OR  Register
X


Iframe embed code :



Presentation url :

X

Description :

Alcohols Chemistry Presentation : Download Alcohols Chemistry ppt presentation and make your presenation attractive

Tags :

Alcohols Chemistry

Home / Health & Wellness / Health & Wellness Presentations / Alcohols Chemistry PowerPoint Presentation

Alcohols Chemistry PowerPoint Presentation

Ppt Presentation Embed Code   Zoom Ppt Presentation

About This Presentation


Description : Alcohols Chemistry Presentation : Download Alcohols Chemistry ppt presentation and make your presena... Read More

Tags : Alcohols Chemistry

Published on : Dec 09, 2014
Views : 397 | Downloads : 0


Download Now

Share on Social Media

             

PowerPoint is the world's most popular presentation software; you can create professional Alcohols Chemistry powerpoint presentation with this powerful software easly. And give your presentation on Alcohols Chemistry in conference, a school lecture, a business proposal or in webinar.

Uploader spend their valuable time to create this Alcohols Chemistry powerpoint presentation slides, to share their knowledgable content with the world. This ppt presentation uploaded by worldwideweb in their relavent Health & Wellness category is available for free download and use according to your industries likefinance,marketing,education,health and many more.

SlidesFinder.com provides a platform for marketers, presenters and educationists along with being the preferred search engine for professional PowerPoint presentations on the Internet to upload your Alcohols Chemistry ppt presentation slides to BUILD YOUR CROWD!!

User Presentation
Related Presentation
Free PowerPoint Templates
Slide 1 - Alcohols R-O-H Classification CH3, 1o, 2o, 3o Nomenclature: Common names: “alkyl alcohol” IUPAC: parent = longest continuous carbon chain containing the –OH group. alkane drop -e, add –ol prefix locant for –OH (lower number for OH)
Slide 2 - CH3 CH3 CH3CHCH2CHCH3 CH3CCH3 OH OH 4-methyl-2-pentanol tert-butyl alcohol 2-methyl-2-propanol 2o 3o CH3 HO-CHCH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2-OH sec-butyl alcohol n-propyl alcohol 2-butanol 1-propanol 2o 1o
Slide 3 - Physical properties of alcohols: polar + hydrogen bonding relatively higher mp/bp water insoluble! (except for alcohols of three carbons or less) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2-OH hydrophobic hydrophilic
Slide 4 - Oldest known organic synthesis: “fermentation” Sugar + yeast  ethyl alcohol + CO2 Grape juice => “wine” Barley => “beer” Honey => “mead” Rice => “sake” ~5-11% ethanol
Slide 5 - Distillation of fermented beverages to produce “distilled spirits” with a greater percentage of ethyl alcohol (bp 78.3 oC). Ethyl alcohol forms a binary azeotrope with water: 95% ethanol + 5% water (bp 78.15oC) Diluted with water => “vodka” 40% ethyl alcohol in water. “proof”: when aqueous alcohol is placed on a sample of gunpowder and ignited, the gunpowder will burn at a minimum concentration of 50% alcohol. This is called “100-proof”. (proof = 2 * alcohol percent)
Slide 6 - Add oil of juniper => gin Add peat smoke => scotch Age in a burned barrel => whiskey Add peppermint => schnapps Etc. Ethyl alcohol is a poison. LD50 = ~10g/Kg orally in mice. Nausea, vomiting, flushing, mental excitement or depression, drowsiness, impaired perception, loss of coordination, stupor, coma, death may occur. (intoxication)
Slide 7 - Alcohols, synthesis: 1. 2. 3. 4. Hydrolysis of alkyl halides (CH3 or 1o) 5. 6. 7. 8.
Slide 8 - R-H R-X R-OH Acids Bases Active metals Oxidation Reduction Halogens
Slide 9 - Alcohols, reactions: R-|-OH With HX With PX3 (later) RO-|-H As acids Ester formation Oxidation
Slide 10 - 1. Reaction of alcohols with HX: (#1 synthesis of RX) R-OH + HX  R-X + H2O a) HX: HI > HBr > HCl b) ROH: 3o > 2o > CH3 > 1o c) May be acid catalyzed d) Rearrangements are possible except with most 1o alcohols.
Slide 11 - CH3CH2CH2CH2-OH + NaBr, H2SO4, heat  CH3CH2CH2CH2-Br n-butyl alcohol n-butyl bromide 1-butanol 1-bromobutane CH3 CH3 CH3C-OH + HCl  CH3C-Cl (room temperature) CH3 CH3 tert-butyl alcohol tert-butyl chloride 2-methyl-2-propanol 2-chloro-2-methylpropane CH3CH2-OH + HI, H+, heat  CH3CH2-I ethyl alcohol ethyl iodide ethanol iodoethane
Slide 12 - Mechanism? CH3-OH and most 1o alcohols react with HX via SN2 mechanism 3o and 2o react with HX via SN1 mechanism Both mechanisms include an additional, first step, protonation of the alcohol oxygen: R-OH + H+  R-OH2+ “oxonium ion”
Slide 13 - Whenever an oxygen containing compound is placed into an acidic solution, the oxygen will be protonated, forming an oxonium ion.
Slide 14 - Mechanism for reaction of an alcohol with HX: CH3OH or 1o alcohols:
Slide 15 - Mechanism for reaction of an alcohol with HX: 2o or 3o alcohols:
Slide 16 - May be catalyzed by acid. SN2 rate = k [ ROH2+ ] [ X- ] SN1 rate = k [ ROH2+ ] Acid protonates the -OH, converting it into a better leaving group (H2O), increasing the concentration of the oxonium ion, and increasing the rate of the reaction.
Slide 17 - Rearrangements are possible (except with most 1o alcohols): CH3 CH3 CH3CHCHCH3 + HBr  CH3CCH2CH3 OH Br   Br- CH3 CH3 [1,2-H] CH3 CH3CHCHCH3  CH3CHCHCH3  CH3CCH2CH3 OH2+ + + 2o carbocation 3o carbocation
Slide 18 - ppt slide no 18 content not found
Slide 19 - Most 1o? If large steric requirement… CH3 CH3 CH3CCH2-OH + HBr  CH3CCH2CH3 CH3 Br neopentyl alcohol 2-bromo-2-methylbutane   CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3CCH2-OH2+  CH3CCH2+  CH3CCH2CH3 CH3 CH3 + 1o carbocation 3o carbocation [1,2-CH3]
Slide 20 - With PX3 ROH + PX3  RX PX3 = PCl3, PBr3, P + I2 No rearrangements ROH: CH3 > 1o > 2o CH3 CH3 CH3CCH2-OH + PBr3  CH3CCH2-Br CH3 CH3 neopentyl alcohol 2,2-dimethyl-1-bromopropane 
Slide 21 - Dehydration (later)
Slide 22 - As acids. With active metals: ROH + Na  RONa + ½ H2  With bases: ROH + NaOH  NR! CH4 < NH3 < ROH < H2O < HF
Slide 23 - CH3CH2OH + NaOH  H2O + CH3CH2ONa WA WB SA SB CH3CH2OH + CH3MgBr  CH4 + MgBr(OCH2CH3) SA SB WA WB CH3OH + NaNH2  NH3 + CH3ONa SA SB WA WB
Slide 24 - Ester formation. CH3CH2-OH + CH3CO2H, H+  CH3CO2CH2CH3 + H2O CH3CH2-OH + CH3COCl  CH3CO2CH2CH3 + HCl CH3-OH + CH3SO2Cl  CH3SO3CH3 + HCl Esters are alkyl “salts” of acids.
Slide 25 - ppt slide no 25 content not found
Slide 26 - ppt slide no 26 content not found
Slide 27 - ppt slide no 27 content not found
Slide 28 - ppt slide no 28 content not found
Slide 29 - oxidation states of carbon - oxidation  CH4 CH3OH CH2O HCO2H CO2 -4 -2 0 +2 +4  reduction -
Slide 30 - Oxidation Oxidizing agents: KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, CrO3, NaOCl, etc. Primary alcohols: CH3CH2CH2-OH + KMnO4, etc.  CH3CH2CO2H carboxylic acid Secondary alcohols: OH O CH3CH2CHCH3 + K2Cr2O7, etc.  CH3CH2CCH3 ketone Teriary alcohols: no reaction.
Slide 31 - Primary alcohols can also be oxidized to aldehydes: CH3CH2CH2-OH + C5H5NHCrO3Cl  CH3CH2CHO pyridinium chlorochromate aldehyde or CH3CH2CH2-OH + K2Cr2O7, special conditions 
Slide 32 - Alcohols, synthesis: 1. 2. 3. 4. Hydrolysis of alkyl halides (CH3 or 1o) 5. 6. 7. 8.
Slide 33 - Alcohols, reactions: R-|-OH With HX With PX3 (later) RO-|-H As acids Ester formation Oxidation