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Slide 1 - AVIATION CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE, AIRPORTS & CATASTROPHES Jim Smith, PhD, P.E. American Public University System Smith-Woolwine Associates, Inc. American Public University System | Educating Those Who Serve
Slide 2 - Acronyms & abbreviations AAR: After Action Review ACI: aviation critical infrastructure CBRNE: chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and (high) explosive CI: critical infrastructure COB: continuity of business COG: continuity of government COOP: continuity of operations DHS: U.S. Department of Homeland Security DOD: U.S. Department of Defense EDM: emergency and disaster managemetn EMA: emergency management agency EOC: emergency operations center FAA: Federal Aviation Administration HSPD: Homeland Security Presidential Directive IAP: incident action plan ICS: Incident Command System IT: information technology MAC: multiagency coordination entity MANPAD: man-portable air defense systems NIMS: National Incident Management System SARS: severe acute respiratory syndrome TSA: Transportation Security Administration American Public University System | Educating Those Who Serve
Slide 3 - Critical infrastructure A system that is essential for national survival or economic survival Examples Highways Electrical generation and transmission Dams and levees Highways and bridges Aviation system
Slide 4 - Aviation critical infrastructure One of 18 DHS CI sectors or 17 ASCE categories Comprises Airports Airlines and planes Air cargo companies and planes General aviation Military aviation including mobility FAA Air traffic control system Security of system Intermodal connections to other critical infrastructures Skilled personnel
Slide 5 - Key events 9/11/2001 for intentional incidents 2003 SARS epidemic Aug-Sept 2005 Katrina for natural disasters All three have led to changes in airport structures, policies, procedures, operations, organizations, and defenses.
Slide 6 - Gander on 9/12
Slide 7 - Key terms Event – a planned happening Incident – an unplanned or unscheduled happening Disaster – an event or incident that causes severe damage but can be handled by emergency responders with mutual aid Catastrophe – a disaster that overwhelms the capabilities of the community or region
Slide 8 - What sort of catastrophes? Not limited to aviation-related disasters Natural disasters Accidents Pandemics Civil disturbances Terrorism War and civil war
Slide 9 - Natural disaster threats Floods Hurricanes, typhoons, cyclones, tornadoes, windstorms Earthquakes Landslides Volcanoes and ash clouds Wildfires Blizzards and ice storms Tsunamis
Slide 10 - Accidents Crashes Industrial accidents Infrastructure failure Mechanical failure Human error
Slide 11 - Pandemics SARS Bird flu Swine flu Potential bioterrorism agents Converge with terrorism incidents
Slide 12 - Civil disturbances Riots Strikes Demonstrations Boycotts Employee sabotage
Slide 13 - Terrorism CBRNE attacks Chemical - sarin Biological - anthrax Radiological- BA flights London-Moscow 2005 Nuclear Explosive – Glasgow, Pan Am 103, Buncefield? MANPAD Hostages Hijacking Psychological Cyber Disinformation
Slide 14 - War War Civil war
Slide 15 - Why focus on airports? They are essential to receiving or sending aid in disasters and catastrophes. As fixed assets, they are vulnerable, expensive to replace, and hard to repair if damaged. Planes and people can be moved or sheltered; airports can’t. Airports are iconic. Airports have been targets of terrorists. Airports have been used inappropriately by relief efforts following disasters.
Slide 16 - Airport roles in disasters Receiving aid Dispatching aid Quarantine (initial) Helicopter base for rescue and reconn Logistics hub – intermodal terminus Communications – node or backup Backup EOC Security area
Slide 17 - Inappropriate roles for airports Command and control centers Mobile hospitals Quarantine (long-term) Reunification centers Temporary morgues Logistics storage Billeting Pre-site off-airport alternatives
Slide 18 - Functioning means Airport continuity of operations (COOP) Airport continuity of business (COB) COOP always applies to an airport, but COB is situationally sensitive to the scope and nature of the disaster.
Slide 19 - Stages of emergency and disaster management Prevention Preparedness Mitigation Response Recovery Reconstruction
Slide 20 - Sustainability Generally applied to normal range of activities Applies to structural and organization designs that promote efficient and effective operations with minimum use of resources Could be stretched to include activities outside the normal range => MITIGATION All too often overlooks disasters
Slide 21 - Resiliency Ability of a structure, organization, or system to do at least ONE of the following: to avoid damage => PREVENTION to retain an acceptable but reduced level of functioning => MITIGATION to return to an acceptable level of functioning after a disaster or catastrophe => MITIGATION & RECOVERY
Slide 22 - It all starts locally All disaster response starts locally, and the local flavor will persist no matter how much the response escalates to track the evolution of the incident. If the locality involves an airport, the airport’s preparedness can condition the nature and outcomes of the response.
Slide 23 - Do you have to wait 72 hours for help? Under the National Response Framework and prior doctrines, the expectation is that localities—including airports—will have to wait about 72 hours for outside (federal) aid.
Slide 24 - EDM time spectrum State High Federal Civilian Private Sector DoD (Title 10) Local Emergency Services Specialized Regional Response Assets Mutual Aid Agreements Interstate Compacts Required Capabilities and Resources Low Pre-Event 12-48 Hours 48-96 Hours 30 Days First 12 Hours
Slide 25 - Cutting the 72-hour wait Get airport designated as critical infrastructure/critical facilities list Smart plans and strategies Promoting self-help capabilities Developing special response and recovery capabilities Giving and receiving mutual help beyond mutual aid pacts – regional cooperation and coordination - DOGs
Slide 26 - What’s a DOG Disaster Operations Group SEADOG WESTDOG None yet in Midwest, New England, Middle Atlantic, Hawaii, and Pacific Associated with EMAC and state EMAC coordinators
Slide 27 - GPT DAB Airport Response – Ivan 2005
Slide 28 - MSY Airport Response – Katrina 2005
Slide 29 - Gulfport and Katrina “Our highway infrastructure had been destroyed, the Port had suffered catastrophic damages and the rail system was inoperable. Our airport was the primary source for receiving aid and materials. Without the airport’s quick turnaround, we would have been cut off from the world and the much needed assistance that we needed to survive.” Brent Warr, Mayor, City of Gulfport
Slide 30 - LCH PHX Airport Response at Lake Charles – Rita 2005
Slide 31 - BPT SAN APA Airport Response at Beaumont-Port Arthur – Rita 2005
Slide 32 - Key concepts Airports are even more critical in disasters and catastrophes. Airports are critical infrastructure. Airports must be protected from inappropriate uses. Airport design (structural, organizational, policy, and defensive) should promote continuity of operations.
Slide 33 - Telling quote “In a disaster, an airport can substitute for almost anything else, but nothing can substitute for an airport.” Walter White, MEM
Slide 34 - Actions to protect airport COOP/COB Structural Policy Organizational Procedural Defensive These are highly cross-connected.
Slide 35 - Structural (Physical facilities) Redundancy on site Back-up emergency operations center (EOC) Alternative sites Hardening Hardened communications and IT CBRNE prevention and mitigation Perimeter control Fuel system protection Air traffic control system protection Alternate utilities Interoperability standards
Slide 36 - Special structural concerns Design and construction to resist damage from multihazards Rapid post-incident evaluation Rapid post-incident repair Communications Alternative logistics, especially fuel and electricity Shelter-in-place capabilities Sustainment for essential employees Documentation as-built and modified
Slide 37 - EOC Nerve center for disaster operations Functions, space, connectivity, and people Supports and coordinates on-scene commanders operating under NIMS/ICS doctrines Can play role in all phases of emergency and disaster management Typically present at airports and at all levels of government and in corporations May go by other names but functions are the same MAC = multiagency coordination entity, sort of a super-EOC
Slide 38 - Policy Subordination of airport asset to local, regional, or national incident management systems CONTROVERSIAL COOP/COB paramount strategic objective Pre-planned responses to strategic threats Pre-arrangements with agencies and surrounding business community to help ensure COOP Pro-mitigation orientation Laws controlling demonstrations and trespass Proactive policing policies Funding of preparedness and mitigation measures
Slide 39 - Organizational Full NIMS/ICS implementation Joint training, drilling, and exercising Within airport With surrounding agencies With DOD and other federal agencies Avoidance of insurance blackballing Worker protection Worker morale Internal security Standards Backup organizational units, especially EOC
Slide 40 - Operational Preparedness Alternative modes of transport Internal security Interoperability Standards Pre-siting Staging Pull, not push: hold logistics at intermediate airports rather than jamming up airport(s) in the middle of the disaster Off-site logistic support and storage Avoidance of non-essential uses Training, drilling, and exercising Interoperability Standards – national and international
Slide 41 - Access and credentialing Access to airfield by mutual aid and other outside responders is a difficult issue. Credentialing of responders for on-airport action is needed. Flexibility is needed for extreme cases.
Slide 42 - Defensive Intelligence Counterterrorism Active defense Passive defense SAM exclusion Flight paths Minimize target value Time flexibility
Slide 43 - Simultaneous threats Antagonists could possibly apply terrorism, war, or violent acts to take advantage of disruption due to natural disaster, accident, or pandemic.
Slide 44 - Distant catastrophes Airports may be key assets in sending aid to distant disasters or catastrophes. Sending aid can stress airports and complicate normal COB/COOP. Distant catastrophes may send refugees and injured persons to an airport.
Slide 45 - Newest challenge Airports, especially international gateway airports like ATL, BWI, PHL, and MSP, are being asked to establish facilities, plans and procedures for Emergency Repatriation Centers to receive and support U.S. citizens repatriated from overseas crises.
Slide 46 - Conclusions Disaster management at airports involves airports internally and airports in a community context Coordination and cooperation among airports is needed Strong airport-emergency management agency cooperation and coordination is cost-effective mitigation against all hazards Preparedness against multihazards works for natural disasters, pandemics, and manmade threats Other components of aviation critical infrastructure have parallel concerns and needs for preparedness
Slide 47 - Last word “In a disaster, an airport can substitute for almost anything else, but nothing can substitute for an airport.” But nothing matters unless the airport and its functions have been protected or restored.
Slide 48 - Resources for further study Building sound emergency management into airports. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., & Hall, G. (2007). IATC 2007 Proceedings, 47-60. Memphis Airport as a model for disaster response. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., & Hall, G. (2007). Crisis Response Journal 3(3), 30-32. Protecting airport functionality during disaster responses: Natural disasters, accidents, and pandemics. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Rabjohn, A., & Bachar, A. (2007). J. Emergency Mgt. 5(6), 29-40. Protecting airport functionality during disaster responses: Terrorism, war, civil war, and riots. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Rabjohn, A., & Bachar, A. (2008a). J. Emergency Mgt., 6(3), 53-62. Protecting airport functionality during disaster responses: Solutions. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Rabjohn, A., & Bachar, A. (2008b). J. Emergency Mgt., 6(4), 57-64. Maintaining airport continuity of business and operations during disaster response: the role of command and control relationships with emergency management agencies. Smith, J. F. (2008). J. Bus. Continuity & Emerg. Planning, 3(1).