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Slide 1 - Tony Gerardi APR Consultants, Inc. www.aprconsultants.com Airfield Pavement Roughness -Gaps in the Industry- ASTM E17 Seminar on Airport Pavement Roughness Issues December 5, 2006
Slide 2 - The Primary Reason We Strive to Build and Maintain Smooth Pavements is to Minimize Aircraft Dynamic Response and Maximize Aircraft Performance
Slide 3 - Presentation Overview Why Smoothness is Important Acceptance of New Pavements (FAA AC 150/5370 – “16-Foot Straightedge”) Rejection Criteria (Existing Pavements) Case Histories Gaps in the Industry
Slide 4 - Roughness Defined Shock Loading Short wavelength roughness that is too fast for the tires and suspension system to react. (rattles instruments, jars avionics) Single Axle Loading Short wavelength roughness that the tires and suspension system is capable of reacting to. (Increases O&S costs, passenger complaints) Whole Aircraft Loading Longer wavelength roughness that excites the whole aircraft (Aircraft fatigue damage, reduces braking ability, reduces pavement life)
Slide 5 - Runway Roughness Evaluation: A Unique Problem Landing Gear Spacing of nearly 100 Feet Speeds up to 150 Knots Aircraft will Respond to Bumps 300 Feet Long or Longer Multiple Bumps in Succession; Non-Linear Effect Struts are Primarily Designed for Landing Impact
Slide 6 - Why Be Concerned About Runway Roughness? Aborted Takeoff Poor Braking Performance Increased Operational & Support Costs & Aircraft Fatigue Damage Reduces Pavement’s Useful Life and Could Result in Costly Unscheduled Repairs Pilot and Passenger Complaints
Slide 7 - FAA AC 150/5370 (the “P-501 Spec”) New Pavement Acceptance Criteria .25 Inch in 16 Feet or PI of 5-7 (in/mile) .5 Inch Max Deviation from Design Grade* Difficult to Meet 100% of the Time Conservative from Aircraft Response Perspective Can be a Source for Disputes Regarding Pavement Acceptance Unnecessary Grinding Led to IPRF/FAA Research Project *Note: Grade Control in the Same as Vehicle Response Control
Slide 8 - Evolution of Airport Pavement Smoothness 16-Foot Straightedge “Max Deviation Anywhere Along the Length”
Slide 9 - Evolution of Airport Pavement Smoothness Assessment California Profilograph PI of 5-7 Inches/Mile is Conservative
Slide 10 - Walking Profilers Sufficient Accuracy for Airfield Evaluation Relatively Inexpensive Can Track All Event Wavelengths Some Units Can be Painfully Slow
Slide 11 - Inertial Profilers (Measure Relative Profile) Van, Truck or ATV Mounted Faster than Walking Type Sub Millimeter Accuracy Texture can Adversely Affect Ride Readings Must Have Room to Accelerate/Decelerate Not as Repeatable As Walking Profilers More Expensive Difficulty Tracking Longer Wavelength Events
Slide 12 - Other Profilers Rolling Inclinometer Wet or Dry Profiler
Slide 13 - Considerations for Building New Airport Pavements Evaluate the Design for Aircraft Response Measure Profile for Smoothness at Each Stage of Construction Maintain String Line Tension Measure Profile for Smoothness soon after Placement (Feedback to Paving Crew) Final MSL Measurement Serves as Baseline for Tracking Change for That Pavement (Deliverable)
Slide 14 - IPRF Research Recommended Target Smoothness Values Rolling Straightedge Length 25 Feet Threshold of Acceptability .35 Inches Pavement Section Length 500 Feet Allowable SSI per Section 5% Must Repair Value for Keel Section .5-Inch Must Repair Value for Outer Lanes .75-Inch Note 1: Repeated bumps (3 or more) in the keel section .25 inches or greater will require repair. Note 2: Any longitudinal step bump greater than .25-inch in the keel section will require repair. Note 3: Exceptions apply for intersecting runways, drains on taxiways and ramps.
Slide 15 - No Official Rejection Criteria For Existing Pavements Unofficial Methods Being Used The Boeing Curve IRI / PI / RN Pilot Reported Roughness Aircraft Simulation
Slide 16 - Case Histories Unnecessary Disputes Evaluating the Design Establish a Baseline Profile
Slide 17 - Case Histories: Disputes Case Histories Military Parking Apron in Eastern US (Relax Grade Control Requirements at Very Low Speeds) Taxiway in Midwest (Straightedge Deviation) Runway in Southern US (Unnecessary Grinding) Runway in Western US (Grade Control Issue) Current P-501 Puts All Stakeholders in an Awkward Position Note: Grade Control is Not Vehicle Response Control
Slide 18 - Comparison of Runway in Western US to Known Smooth and Known Rough Runway Known Rough Runway (Caused Many Pilot Complaints) Very Smooth New PCC Runway (No Pilot Complaints) Case History Runway in Western US
Slide 19 - Case History: Evaluate the Design Using Aircraft Simulation Design Constraints can cause the Design to Produced Unacceptable Aircraft Response Midwest Runway, (built to design: unacceptable) Middle East and Orange County CA : Correction made to the design. Intersecting Runways at Manitoba, in Texas, and in NY Optimize Drainage and Roughness Minimize the Impact on the Primary Runway
Slide 20 - Case History: Settlement Measure Mean Sea Level (MSL) Profile Before Pavement Opens to Traffic Use Data for Final Pavement Smoothness Acceptance Use Data to Establish Baseline Track Settlement Periodically by Comparing MSL Profiles
Slide 21 - Comparing to the Baseline Pavement Profile Acceptance of an Airport Pavement Should Require an MSL Profile Measurement to Establish a Baseline for Future Measurements
Slide 22 - Quantifying Changes: Settlement
Slide 23 - Roughness and Stopping Distance It Takes More Runway to Stop on a Rough Runway Varies the Normal Load Tricks the Anti-skid Difficult to Maintain Steady Brake Pressure Wheel Hop Can Make the Difference Whether or not the Runway is Overrun When Landing Long Stopping on a Contaminated Runway or in a High Speed Abort
Slide 24 - The High Speed Aborted Takeoff Aircraft is Heavy, Speed is High, Little Runway Remaining……… Hot Brakes (Blown Tire Fuse Plugs and Fire Hazard) High Nose gear Loads (Blown Fuse Plugs or Failed Drag Brace) Risk Overrunning the Runway
Slide 25 - Conclusions (Gaps in the Industry) Define the Effect of Roughness on Aircraft Braking Performance Quantify the Effect of Roughness on Dynamic Loads in a High Speed Aborted Takeoff Update New Pavement Acceptance Criteria that’s Agreeable to All Stakeholders
Slide 26 - Require a Baseline MSL Profile as a Deliverable for Future Comparisons Establish Official Rejection Criteria That Defines When an Airport Pavement has Become Too Rough. Establish a Standard for Evaluating Pavement Roughness Conclusions (Gaps in the Industry)
Slide 27 - Contact Information… APR’s Website: www.aprconsultants.com Or Contact Us By: email: info@aprconsultants.com Tel: (937) 849-6795 Fax: (937) 849-6048