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Published on : Dec 09, 2014
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Slide 1 - Best Management Practices for Leasing and Developing Landside Airport Property
Slide 2 - How to Use This Presentation This template provides content, examples and definitions for a presentation to community stakeholders User should insert and/or delete content/slides as appropriate The presentation assumes a non-technical audience of governing/policy-focused officials
Slide 3 - The Airport Sponsor A public agency or governing body that has ownership and operational responsibility for a public airport. Examples Include: Airport authority City State Federal government
Slide 4 - Airport Sponsor’s Role Establish direction and planning for airport development Maintain communication between parties and ensures mutual interests are considered
Slide 5 - Airport sponsor must comply with Federal Grant Assurances associated with FAA funding of infrastructure Sponsor should establish Minimum Standards for Aeronautical Development/Rules & Regulations These foundational documents should be referenced in lease agreements and updated periodically Airport Sponsor’s Role
Slide 6 - Federal Compliance Grant Assurance 5-Preserving Rights and Powers: Airport sponsor won’t take or permit any action which would operate to deprive it of any of the rights and powers to perform any or all of terms, conditions, and assurances in grant agreement without the written approval of the Secretary Airport sponsor will act promptly to acquire, extinguish or modify any outstanding rights or claims of right of others which would interfere with such performance by the sponsor
Slide 7 - Federal Compliance Grant Assurance 6-Community Considerations:  Project consistent with existing local public agency plans for the development of the area surrounding the airport Grant Assurance 7-Consideration of Local Interest: Airport sponsor must give fair consideration to interest of communities in or near where the project may be located Grant Assurance 8-Consultation with Users: Airport sponsor must undertake reasonable consultations with affected parties using airport where project is proposed
Slide 8 - Federal Compliance Grant Assurance 22-Economic Nondiscrimination: Airport sponsor will make airport available for public use on reasonable terms and without unjust discrimination to all types, kinds and classes of aeronautical activities, including commercial aeronautical activities offering services to public at airport
Slide 9 - Federal Compliance Grant Assurance 24-Fee and Rental Structure: Airport sponsor must set rates, charges and leasehold rents in a manner that will ensure financial self-sustainability of airport Airport sponsor will maintain a fee and rental structure for the facilities and services at airport so it can be self sustaining Federal funds can’t be included in rate basis for fees, rates and charges to airport users
Slide 10 - Federal Compliance Grant Assurance 39-Competitive Access: Reporting function required of airport sponsor (at a medium-hub or large-hub airport only) should the airport, due to lack of capacity, be unable to accommodate new or expanded service by a commercial carrier If a large-hub or medium-hub airport sponsor is unable to accommodate one or more requests by an air carrier for access to gates or other facilities, airport sponsor must report the situation to the FAA The report must (1) describe requests; (2) provide explanation as to why requests could not be accommodated; and (3) provide a time frame for airport to be able to accommodate the requests, if at all
Slide 11 - Federal Compliance Grant Assurance 23-Exclusive Rights: Airport sponsor can’t grant any single commercial enterprise exclusive rights to conduct aeronautical activities or be sole provider of services Prohibition granting exclusive rights does not apply to services provided by airport sponsor itself Airport sponsor may elect to be sole provider of services such as fueling or maintenance, but must use own staff and management (i.e., the services and management of the enterprise cannot be contracted out to a third-party provider)
Slide 12 - Airport Master Plan Analyses of region, infrastructure, tenant base, demand and environment Defines areas appropriate for leasing and developing airport property Identifies opportunities or niches for airport to pursue
Slide 13 - Airport Layout Plan (ALP) Component of Airport Master Plan Shows areas of development and aeronautical features, such as Runway Protection Zones
Slide 14 - Land Use Plan Adds more detail to Airport Master Plan/Airport Layout Plan – Aeronautical vs. Non-Aeronautical, for example Usually describes lot or leasehold sizes Identifies utilities and infrastructure, both current and proposed
Slide 15 - Infrastructure Analysis Inventory of existing and future improvements Includes land that airport sponsor owns and controls Establishes relationship to infrastructure and services outside of airport property
Slide 16 - Airport Business Plan Considers the market and opportunities for airport development Airport facilities and services Population and economic growth Surrounding airports Airport leasing policy Rates and charges Potential funding sources Land use planning
Slide 17 - Target Industry Analysis Identifies businesses and industries best suited to conduct operations on available airport land Examines Regional demographic trends Employment concentrations Industry clusters Regional industry profiles
Slide 18 - Case Study: Baton Rouge, LA Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport bought a parcel of undeveloped land to meet RSA requirements. A 4-lane highway separates a portion of the land from airside access. Non-aeronautical land used for Coca-Cola® facility. Stakeholders: Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport Authority, State of Louisiana, Office of the Mayor, Louisiana Economic Development, Coca-Cola Benefits: The Airport was able to meet FAA requirements and make use of land with no airside access; new revenue for airport/new jobs
Slide 19 - Case Study: Houston, TX George Bush Intercontinental Airport created a Consolidated Rental Car Facility for eight rental car operators. An LLC was established to govern all operations. Stakeholders: Houston Airport System, city of Houston, and rental car operators Benefits: Rental income to the airport, less traffic congestion at terminal curb-side, and decreased emissions
Slide 20 - Case Study: Pittsburg, PA Only a small portion of the airport was developable due to lack of infrastructure and prepared sites. The airport developed an office/distribution park for large tenants Stakeholders: Airport sponsor, county, state, federal government Benefits: New revenue to the airport, diversification of revenue sources, job creation in the community
Slide 21 - Lease Elements Lessor Lessee Premises Use of premises Lease term Rent Escalation clause Operation and maintenance Construction of improvements
Slide 22 - Lease Elements Reversion/reversionary clause Rights, reservations and obligations of Lessor Rights, reservations and obligations of lessee Security requirements Damage to facilities Insurance obligations Environmental Taxes and fees
Slide 23 - Lease Elements Liens Defaults Assignments and Subletting Regulatory Compliance Hold Harmless Provision Nondiscrimination Living Clauses Force Majeure Holdover
Slide 24 - Optional Lease Elements Non-Compete Clause Right of First Refusal Percent of Revenue Extension Options/Rights
Slide 25 - Environmental Considerations Current environmental condition of land/facilities Baseline conditions and historical data established Responsibility for past, present and future remediation Environmental insurance requirements Landlord assurance of tenant’s financial capability to resolve potential liability exposures
Slide 26 - Environmental Considerations Airport sponsor is ultimately responsible for ensuring environmental compliance of all tenants and airport users, therefore should: In consultation with FAA’s Office of Airports (ARP) planners and environmental specialists, consider known environmental factors in early master planning efforts Provide environmental information to its consultant or to ARP Prepare Environmental Assessments (EA) or hire qualified environmental contractors to prepare documents
Slide 27 - Environmental Considerations (cont.) Provide opportunities for public participation, and a public hearing, if appropriate Consult with ARP personnel, and coordinate with federal, state, and local agencies, federally-recognized tribes, and affected community as described in Order 5050.4B Join ARP in Memorandum of Understanding to pay the contractor ARP selects to help prepare Environmental Impact Statement for proposed action
Slide 28 - Financial Considerations Grant funds may be vital to making a project financially feasible but often have defined uses. Airport Improvement Program (AIP) and Economic Development Agency (EDA) grants, for example, have specific eligibility criteria A pro-forma analysis will identify expected costs and revenues associated with the airport development project, across the term of the Lease Agreement
Slide 29 - Financial Considerations Consistency of valuation is important to the long-term integrity of the airport’s development program On-going benchmarking of rates and charges will facilitate consistency and maximize airport revenue Capital recovery (CAP) rates may differ from project to project, depending on development type and market forces
Slide 30 - Developer Considerations Return on investment Equity/debt coverage Financial effects of lease components Lease term Maintenance requirements Allowable uses
Slide 31 - Developer Considerations Creative or alternative financing structures, to include tax-exempt debt, may be attractive Incentives, abatements and deferrals City, county, state and school district may be able to offer incentives and/or tax abatements Airport sponsor may be able to provide rent abatements and/or fee deferrals
Slide 32 - Valuation Comparable sales approach Considers similar airports and facilities Establishes lease rate for project Cost approach Considers cost of replacing all facilities and improvements, less depreciation Income approach–Considers potential revenues
Slide 33 - External Stakeholders Coordination of resources Tangible Grants Low-interest infrastructure loans Matching funds Intangible Tax incentives Policy direction and regulations
Slide 34 - Lessons Learned At end of lease, all property, structures and enhancements should revert to the airport Identification of this point allows for honest discussion with regards to lease term and amortization of developer’s investment
Slide 35 - Lessons Learned Subleasing and subletting The developer’s/tenant’s right to sublet all or a portion of leased property should be at the discretion of the airport sponsor Subletting should be for a defined portion of the improvements and for a defined use
Slide 36 - Airport Sponsor Checklist Planning: Does the project fit stated goals of: Airport Master Plan, Land Use Plan and Airport Business Plan? Does it comply with community land use plans, zoning ordinances and other applicable planning documents? Is it in compliance with FAA approved ALP? Does proposed use of property violate any grant assurances? Is proposed use of property in compliance with security and environmental regulation?
Slide 37 - Airport Sponsor Checklist Planning: Does project represent the highest-and-best use of the property? Is project in conflict with any current airport agreements such as non-compete or right-of-first-refusal clauses that may be in affect with existing tenant?
Slide 38 - Airport Sponsor Checklist Stakeholder Involvement: Have all of the potential stakeholders in project been identified? Have perspectives, concerns and resources (e.g. potential funding sources, marketing resources, and development expertise) of stakeholders been identified? Are plans in place to reach out to identified stakeholders; are mechanisms such as public meetings, round-table discussions and focus groups planned to facilitate communications and dialogue?
Slide 39 - Airport Sponsor Checklist Finance and Funding: What will project cost in immediate outlay of resources; what ongoing operational, maintenance and financing costs are anticipated? Where will project funding come from; what entity/stakeholder is responsible for securing it? Will airport sponsor’s debt capacity and/or credit worthiness be impacted by financing this project? Does airport have ability to issue debt - either through airport sponsor organization or through another applicable public-sector entity ?
Slide 40 - Airport Sponsor Checklist Finance and Funding: Does project qualify for EDA/EDC grants or bonds (either local, state or federal)? Will anticipated airport revenue be sufficient to cover debt obligations and recurring operational costs assigned to sponsor? Will airport sponsor recognize revenues in line with valuation estimates or appraised market value of property? Has a pro-forma financial analysis of project been conducted that will forecast the project-specific financial implications for the airport?
Slide 41 - Airport Sponsor Checklist Lease Agreements: Are Lessor and Lessee clearly identified in lease document? Are premises (a.k.a “property”) clearly defined in lease agreement? Does lease agreement stipulate approved use of premises? Is length of lease stated with a clear “commencement date” on which lease agreement will take effect? Does lease term violate any local or state statutes regulating the maximum term that may be offered by a public agency?
Slide 42 - Airport Sponsor Checklist Lease Agreements: Does lease agreement clearly state rent due to Lessor, schedule of payment, acceptable method of payment and penalties for late payment? Is there an escalation clause that will allow airport sponsor to adjust lease rent? Is division of responsibility for leasehold operation and maintenance clearly stated for Lessee and Lessor? Is process for the construction of improvements by Lessee clearly spelled out?
Slide 43 - Airport Sponsor Checklist Lease Agreements: Does lease clearly state how and when ownership of leasehold improvements will revert to the airport? The reversion may include: Failure to pay rent Violation of Airport Rules & Regulations Failure to comply with Airport Minimum Standards Violation of a lease-specific clause within agreement The triggering of a non-compete clause Airport purchase of leasehold improvements
Slide 44 - Airport Sponsor Checklist Lease Agreements: Are rights, reservations and obligations of both Lessor and Lessee addressed in lease agreement? Does lease agreement allow for inspection of premises by airport sponsor? Are insurance obligations of Lessee clearly spelled out? Will lease agreement allow primary Lessee to sublease all or a portion of property?
Slide 45 - Airport Sponsor Checklist Lease Agreements: Does lease agreement include any potential grant assurance violations relating to lease term length, economic nondiscrimination, airport sustainability and granting of exclusive rights? If there is a potential cause for concern, has the FAA been consulted and approval sought?
Slide 46 - Best Management Practices for Leasing and Developing Landside Airport Property