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Aircraft Instrument Systems PowerPoint Presentation

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Published on : Dec 09, 2014
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Slide 1 - Aircraft Instrument Systems
Slide 2 - General Rules Don’t open instrument Any internal problem, send it in for repair Can paint the outside Can make markings on the outside A white slippage mark must be place on glass/case Can repair outside wires, tubes and connectors Must be repaired by a certificated repair station approved for a specific class instrument Label inoperable instruments Place label on instrument Document with a trouble ticket
Slide 3 - General Rules Markings and graduations are made according to the Aircraft Manufacturer Aircraft Specification or Type Certificate Data Sheet Maintenance manual Flight manual Marks Red radial line – minimum or maximum Green – normal Yellow – caution Not specified by Title 14
Slide 4 - Instrument Case FAA say – “Cases for electrically operated instruments are made of iron or steel; these materials provide a path for stray magnetic force fields that would otherwise interfere with radio and electronic devices. Case usually made of iron/steel Protect against magnetic and electrical fields Mounting Flanges
Slide 5 - Instrument Case Mounting Flanges Mount from the front Flangeless Uses a expanding type of clamp secured to the rear face of the panel Slide in cases Almost all radios
Slide 6 - Instrument Panel
Slide 7 - Instrument Panel Mounts Shock mounted Absorb low-frequency, amplitude (strength) shocks Electrically bond (grounded) with bonding strap
Slide 8 - Bourdon Tube Pressure Gage
Slide 9 - Bourdon Tube Pressure Gage
Slide 10 - Bourdon Tube Pressure Gage Used for higher pressures Oil pressure Restrictor on input line to limit leaks Kerosene to improve movement Kerosene is thinner than oil Hydraulic pressure Oil temperature Capillary tube senses temperature Volatile fluid vaporizes at higher temperatures and increases pressure
Slide 11 - Diaphragm-Type Pressure Gage
Slide 12 - Diaphragm Type Pressure Gage Vacuum system Suction Gage Manifold Pressure Gage Measures absolute pressure If leaks or engine not running, measures atmosphere pressure
Slide 13 - FAR Sec. 91.411 (a) No person may operate an airplane, or helicopter, in controlled airspace under IFR unless-- (1) Within the preceding 24 calendar months, each static pressure system, each altimeter instrument, and each automatic pressure altitude reporting system has been tested and inspected and found to comply with appendix E of part 43 of this chapter; (2) Except for the use of system drain and alternate static pressure valves, following any opening and closing of the static pressure system, that system has been tested and inspected and found to comply with paragraph (a), appendices E and F, of part 43 of this chapter; and (3) Following installation or maintenance on the automatic pressure altitude reporting system of the ATC transponder where data correspondence error could be introduced, the integrated system has been tested, inspected, and found to comply with paragraph (c), appendix E, of part 43 of this chapter.
Slide 14 - Pitot-Static System
Slide 15 - Pitot-Static System Altimeter – Static source Set to 29.92” Hg and it will read pressure altitude Rate of Climb – Static source Measures change in pressure Airspeed Indicator – Static and Pitot sources Also Mach meter Measure the difference between static pressure and static pressure (impact pressure) Blue (best climb rate); White (Flap extension) May have maximum allowable speed – static source Must a have alternate static source
Slide 16 - Pitot-Static System Maintenance Pressure test Apply vacuum to equivalent altitude of 1,000 feet No more than 100 feet loss in 1 minute Altimeter may be used to make test Clean entry holes, drain holes and static ports Check pitot heater Look at electric drain and temperature Trouble shoot by isolating sections A static leak will cause low readings on altimeter and airspeed indicator
Slide 17 - Gyroscope
Slide 18 - Gyroscope Measures movement Vacuum powered Electric powered
Slide 19 - Solid State Gyroscope
Slide 20 - Vacuum System for Gyro
Slide 21 - Vacuum System for Gyro Vacuum pump – usually engine driven Dirt is it’s enemy Time limited – usually 5 years No lubrication
Slide 22 - Vacuum System for Gyro Air-Oil Separator Suction Relief Valve/Vacuum Regulator Valve Adjust vacuum Error in adjust can cause excess vacuum Suction Gage – pilot must monitor Air Filter Usually single central filter Regularly changed
Slide 23 - Instrument Panel
Slide 24 - Turn Coordinator Usually electrically driven As a backup to vacuum system Measures both bank and yaw
Slide 25 - Synchro-Type Remote Indicator A Synchro system is an electrical system used from transmitting information from one point to another. Autosyn Electric magnet Selsyn Magnesyn Permanent magnet Synchro receiver is connected synchro transmitter by wires
Slide 26 - D.C. Selsyn System Shows the position and movement of: Landing gear Wing flaps Cowl flaps Oil cooler doors A resistor can be added to the circuit to indicate end points like gear lock
Slide 27 - D.C. Selsyn System
Slide 28 - Capacitor-Type Fuel Quantity System A capacitor formed with fuel and air acting as a dielectric No moving parts Measures weight of fuel Important for jets
Slide 29 - Angle-Of-Attack Helps alert a pilot of stall and the amount of lift Better than a stall warning Measures a differential pressure at the point the airstream flows in a direction not parallel to the true angle of attack of the aircraft
Slide 30 - Electrical Resistance Thermometer Components Heat-sensitive element or bulb Changes resistance with heat Indicator Wheatstone bridge metering circuit Measures: free air; carburetor air; coolant (engine) and oil temperature No really hot temperatures – exhaust and cylinder head
Slide 31 - Thermocouple Thermometer Indicator Thermocouple generates electricity when it gets hot No external power need Made with two different metals Iron/Constantan; Copper/Constantan or Chromel/Alumel are common combinations Chromel/Alumel used on jet engines Don’t alter or repair thermocouple
Slide 32 - Thermocouple Thermometer Indicator
Slide 33 - Thermocouple Thermometer Indicator Thermocouple generates electricity when it gets hot No external power need Made with two different metals Iron/Constantan; Copper/Constantan or Chromel/Alumel are common combinations Chromel/Alumel used on jet engines Don’t alter or repair thermocouple
Slide 34 - Synchro-Type Remote Indicator A Synchro system is an electrical system used from transmitting information from one point to another. Autosyn Electric magnet Selsyn Magnesyn Permanent magnet Synchro receiver is connected synchro transmitter by wires