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Published on : Dec 09, 2014
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Slide 1 - Agriculture Definition, origins, classification Agriculture in LDCs Agriculture in MDCs
Slide 2 - I. Definition, origins, classification Agriculture: Deliberate modification of a portion of earth’s surface through cultivation of plants or raising animals To obtain sustenance (LDCs) or for economic gain (MDCs)
Slide 3 - Hunting and gathering: Small groups, fewer than 50 people Today, only ¼ million people still survive by hunting and gathering
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Slide 5 - Invention of agriculture Accident and deliberate experiment Two types of cultivation: Vegetative planting: cloning from existing plants Seed agriculture: came later, planting of seeds, practiced by most farmers today
Slide 6 - Hearths: agriculture began in multiple, independent hearths (points of origin) (Carl Sauer) Vegetative planting Southeast Asia West Africa NW South America
Slide 7 - Seed agriculture 3 hearths in the Eastern Hemisphere Western India Northern China Ethiopia 2 hearths in Western Hemisphere Southern Mexico/Mesoamerica (squash and corn) Northern Peru
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Slide 9 - The Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Slide 10 - Advantages of the Fertile Crescent 1. Mediterranean climate 2. Numerous edible and productive plants 3. Self pollinate, cross pollinate 4. Wide range of elevations 5. Numerous large animals 6. East-west axis
Slide 11 - Classifying agricultural regions Difference between LDCs (subsistence) and MDCs (commercial) 1. Subsistence agriculture: growing food for consumption by farmer’s family 2. Commercial agriculture: growing food for sale off the farm (machinery and technology)
Slide 12 - Subsistence Commercial
Slide 13 - Today the US is losing farmland 1.2 million acres per year of a total of 1 billion acres
Slide 14 - urban expansion
Slide 15 - Agribusiness Commercial farming in the US and other MDCs is called agribusiness Agribusiness includes processing, packaging, storing, distributing, and retailing; tractor manufacturing, fertilizer production, seed distribution… Farmers are less than 2% of the US labor force But 20% of US labor works in food production and service Many aspects of agribusiness are controlled by large corporations
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Slide 17 - II. Agriculture in LDCs Shifting cultivation Humid low-latitude/tropical zones (high temp and rainfall), low population density 2 types Slash-and-burn: clearing land by cutting vegetation and burning debris (tropical zones) Rotation: using a field for a few years, then leaving it fallow for many years
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Slide 19 - Pastoral nomadism A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals Dry climates, where crops can’t grow, low population density Most in arid and semi-arid land in North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia (Eastern Hemisphere) Transhumance: seasonal migration of livestock between mountains (summer) and lowland pastures (winter) Pasture: land used for grazing, and grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals
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Slide 21 - Intensive subsistence agriculture Farmers must work more intensively to subsist on a parcel of land Farms are smaller, so more pressure for productivity Practiced in densely populated areas (East, South, and Southeast Asia) Wet rice dominant: mostly in river valleys and deltas, or in flat or terraced fields Wet rice not dominant: climate prevents farmers from growing wet rice in parts of Asia, where summer precipitation is low and winters are harsh
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Slide 23 - Plantation farming A form of commercial agriculture in tropics and subtropics (Latin America, Africa, Asia) Mostly in LDCs, but many owned by people in MDCs, and most products for sale in MDCs Plantation: a large farm that specializes in one or two crops
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Slide 25 - III. Agriculture in MDCs Mixed crop and livestock Most crops fed to animals
Slide 26 - Crop rotation systems Farm split into fields, and each field planted on a planned cycle, often several years (1 year fallow and cycle is repeated) Different from shifting agriculture in LDCs because LDCs leave fields fallow for many years and productivity is lower 2-field crop rotation system (Northern Europe, 5th century) Cereal grain planted in Field A for one year, Field B fallow 3-field system (8th century) Field 1 planted with a winter cereal, Field 2 a spring cereal, Field 3 left fallow 4-field system (NW Europe, 18th century) First year: root crop in Field 1, cereal in Field 2, rest crop in Field 3, and cereal in Field 4 Second year: cereal in Field 1, rest crop in 2, cereal in 3, and root in 4
Slide 27 - Dairy farming Dairy used to be consumed on farms or in rural villages, but in the 19th century demand from urban residents increased Dairy farms locate near urban areas: the ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling is known as the milkshed Before the 1840s, milksheds had a radius of less than 30 miles Today milk can be transported more than 300 miles
Slide 28 - Von Thunen Model
Slide 29 - Grain farming Grain: the seed from various grasses, like wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, millet, and others Grain is the major crop on most farms Different from mixed crop and livestock farming because crops on a grain farm are grown primarily for consumption by humans
Slide 30 - Wheat Benefits: Can be sold for a higher price Has more uses than other grains Can be stored easily Can be transported a long distance Grown extensively for international trade and the world’s leading export crop The US and Canada account for half the world’s wheat exports
Slide 31 - In North America, large-scale grain production is concentrated in 3 areas: 1. Winter-wheat belt (Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma): planted in fall, harvested in summer 2. Spring-wheat belt (Dakotas, Montana, southern Saskatchewan): planted in spring, harvested in summer 3. Palouse region in Washington state The result in the US is a staggered harvest, starting in the south and progressing north
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Slide 33 - Livestock ranching Ranching: the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area (semiarid and arid land in MDCs) The only European countries involved in cattle ranching are Spain and Portugal Outside the US: Spain and Portugal, Argentina and Brazil, and Australia Ranching has gone through stages Herding of animals over open ranges (seminomadic) Fixed farming by dividing land into ranches Farms converted to growing crops and ranching confined to drier lands
Slide 34 - Mediterranean agriculture Where? Lands that border the Mediterranean Sea in southern Europe, North Africa, and western Asia Also in CA, Chile, South Africa, and Australia Every area borders a sea Sea winds provide moisture and moderate the winter, summers are hot and dry Land is hilly and mountainous Tree crops and horticulture (the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers) Olives, grapes, fruit, vegetables, citrus, tree nuts Half the land devoted to growing cereals (wheat for pasta and bread)
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