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Slide 1 - The Why and How of Acknowledgement 2013 Wisconsin PBIS Leadership Conference Session C6 Marla Dewhirst Rick Koepke, Evergreen Elementary, Rothschild, WI.
Slide 2 - Definition of Positive Acknowledgement: Positive acknowledgement is the presentation of something pleasant or rewarding immediately following a behavior. It makes that behavior more likely to occur in the future, and is one of the most powerful tools for shaping or changing behavior.
Slide 3 - Preview the need for acknowledgements of the classroom and how they tie into the school-wide acknowledgement plan. Understand why we acknowledge appropriate behavior. Generate classroom examples of incentives to utilize. Objectives of Session
Slide 4 - Acknowledgement System The purpose of an acknowledgement system is to: Foster a welcoming and positive climate Focuses staff and student attention on desired behaviors Increases the likelihood that desired behaviors will be increased. Reduces the time spent correcting student misbehavior
Slide 5 - Why Use Acknowledgements? Reinforce the teaching of new behaviors Harness the influence of kids who are showing expected behaviors to encourage the kids who are not Strengthen positive behaviors that can compete with problem behavior Prompt for adults to recognize behavior
Slide 6 - Why Use Acknowledgements? Encourage school-wide behaviors to be displayed in the future Improve our school climate Create positive interactions and rapport with students Overall, we earn time back to teach and keep kids in the classroom where they can learn from us! Every time any adult interacts with any student, it is an instructional moment!
Slide 7 - Rationale-What Does 5 Positives to 1 Negative Mean? Students should experience predominately positive interactions (ratio of 5 positives for every negative) on all locations of school. Positive Interactions= Behaviorally specific feedback as to what the student did right (contingent) Smile, nod, wink, greeting, attention, hand shake, high five (non-contingent) Negative Interactions= Non-specific behavioral corrections Ignoring student behavior (appropriate or inappropriate)
Slide 8 - How Does 5 to 1 Happen? All Staff are expected to: Interact in a friendly, supportive manner at all times---students, parents, guests and colleagues Initiate positive interactions by: Making eye contact Smiling nodding, winking Welcoming Offering a greeting Asking if assistance is required Provide positive feedback regarding appropriate student behavior Maintain an attitude of respect and support, even when correcting student behavior
Slide 9 - 5 : 1 Ratio, It’s not Just for Kids Business Teams: High Performance = 5.6 positives to 1negative Medium Performance = 1.9 positives to 1 negative Low Performance = 1 positive to 2.7 negatives Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004 Successful Marriages: 5.1 positives to 1 negative (speech acts) and 4.7 positives to 1 negative (observed emotions) Gottoman, 1994
Slide 10 - Gottman Information Predicted whether 700 newlywed couples would stay together or divorce by scoring their positive and negative interactions in one 15-minute conversation between husband and wife. Ten years later, the follow-up revealed that they had predicted divorces with 94% accuracy. Marriages that last: 5.1 to 1 for speech acts and 4.7 to 1 for observed emotions Marriages likely to end in divorce: 1 positive to 1.3 negative ratio likely to end up in divorce
Slide 11 - 11 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making Supporting Student Behavior STUDENT OUTCOMES Social Competence & Academic Achievement
Slide 12 - Practices-How Staff Interact with Students Define: *3-5 school-wide expectations *Classroom managed vs. office referred behavior Teach/Pre-correct *Behaviors like we teach academics with Cool Tools *In the moment reminders/redirection *Pre-correct to “get” expected behavior Model: *Adults practice what we preach *Students practice what we teach Acknowledge: Immediate, intermittent, long-term reinforcements for expected behaviors to ensure future compliance Re-teach: *Consequences for non-compliance *Review of expected behavior *Addition of needed behavioral/academic supports
Slide 13 - Components of Acknowledgement Plans Immediate/High frequency/Predictable/Tangible Delivered at a high rate for a short period while teaching new behaviors or responding to problem behavior Name behavior and tie back to school-wide expectation upon delivery Examples: “Caught Being Good”, “Lincoln Loot”, “Titan Bucks”, positive referrals, points for privilege levels – turned in for tangible/non- tangible prize Intermittent/Unexpected Bring “surprise” attention to certain behaviors or at scheduled intervals Used to maintain a taught behavior Examples: Raffles, special privileges, principal random call Long-term Celebrations Used to celebrate/acknowledge accomplishment ALL kids, all adults Examples: Quarterly activities: popcorn party, class movie, class field day
Slide 14 - Guidelines for Use of Acknowledgements Reinforcements are for every student in the classroom, regardless of where they fall in the PBIS triangle. Over time, move from: other-delivered to self-delivered (extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation) Highly frequent to less frequent Predictable to unpredictable Tangible to social Adapt to data analysis feedback: “boosters” Individualize for students needing greater support systems
Slide 15 - Effective Environments---Critical Factors Research conducted in the work environment (Buckingham and Coffman 2002) , identified the following critical factors as positively contributing to an effective classroom. Educators, Students and Parents: Know what is expected Know curriculum and instruction in place to get good learning outcomes Receive recognition for demonstrating expectations Have a co-worker who cares and pays attention. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve Can identify someone they “relate to” Feel the mission of the class makes their efforts worthwhile See staff and students committed to doing a good job Feel they are learning new things and getting better Have an opportunity to learn and teach
Slide 16 - Example Strategies to Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior Examples: Verbal praise Thumbs up, high five Token Economy Notes/phone calls home or to principal Student of the hour/day/week Special privileges earned through group contingency
Slide 17 - Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior Effective strategies are… Clear and specific Contingent on desired behavior Applied immediately Teacher initiated Focus on improvement and effort Provided frequently during acquisition Fade as skill develops Avoid comparison/competition across children Sincere and appropriate for student’s age Includes hierarchy of alternatives
Slide 18 - Specific and Contingent Praise Praise should be… …contingent: occur immediately following desired behavior …specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing correctly and continue to do in the future “Good job” (not very specific) “I like how you are showing me active listening by having quiet hands and feet and eyes on me” (specific)
Slide 19 - Establish a Continuum of Strategies to Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior Specific and Contingent Praise Group Contingencies Behavior Contracts Token Economies
Slide 20 - Acknowledgement of Appropriate Behaviors Specific and Contingent Praise-Make eye contact and use behaviorally specific language. Provide immediate feedback and acknowledge appropriate behavior often. Group Contingencies All for one-If entire class completes work on time they all get 10 minutes free time. One for all-Students divided into groups. Groups earns points, and group with most points wins reward. To each his/her own-Independent Group Contingency-everyone who earns points receives a reward. Utilize Behavior Contracts (group or individual) Token Economy that can be based on how school reward system operates.
Slide 21 - Group Contingency Considerations Promotes team work Uses peer influences to correct inappropriate behavior May result in conflict within the classroom Good opportunity for modeling/role playing and teaching class wide appropriate behavior (embedding skills)
Slide 22 - Small Group Contingency Small Group The reward is given to all members of a group. Individual performance can effect the entire group. (Members must perform at or better than a specified level to receive a reward and are competing with other groups in the class.) Team competition promotes higher interest and participation Can promote unhealthy competition Group may not have equal chance for success (may need to change the groups periodically)
Slide 23 - Example: Small Group Contigency Mrs. Robinson’s class is divided into 4 groups. Example A: Members of the group help earn tokens for their group. Groups that earn at least 20 tokens by the end of the day are admitted to compete in the “Spelling Bee” or “Who Wants To Be A Millionaire” game. Example B: Mrs. Robinson’s class is divided into 4 groups. Each member must earn 5 tokens each day in order for the entire group to participate in the game (receive a reward). Example C The 2 groups receiving the highest number of tokens for the day participate in the game (receive a reward).
Slide 24 - Behavioral Contracts A written document that specifies a contingency for an individual student or in this case…whole class Contains the following elements: Operational definition of BEHAVIOR Clear descriptions of REINFORCERS OUTCOMES if student fails to meet expectations Special BONUSES that may be used to increase motivation or participation.
Slide 25 - Establishing a Token Economy Determine and teach the target skills Select tokens Identify what will be back-up reinforcers Identify the number of tokens required to receive back-up reinforcers Define and teach the exchange and token delivery system Define decision rules to change/fade the plan Determine how the plan will be monitored **Consider randomly delivering rewards**
Slide 26 - Tips for Using Tangible Tokens TIPS: Ensure an adequate supply Take steps to prohibit counterfeiting Develop a system for “spending” tokens Establish an efficient system of record keeping ADVANTAGES: Works like money (use as an immediate reward, but actual “prize” is purchased later) Takes less time Less expensive
Slide 27 - Meeting Token System Challenges Use tokens that students can “cash in” for back up reinforcers Change the color and/or design of tokens frequently to discourage counterfeiting. Ensure an ample supply of tokens Ensure all students have fair chance of earning rewards. Provide visual prompts in all settings Include information and encouraging messages on daily basis Select criteria for earning rewards based on data already being collected (e.g., attendance, grades) Continue school-wide efforts and align your classroom rewards system with the school-wide system.
Slide 28 - Classroom Continuum of Strategies
Slide 29 - Acknowledgement System Self-Check As you develop your acknowledgement system make sure you check for the following: The system is simple to use Clearly defined criteria for earning rewards Ongoing opportunity to earn rewards Flexible enough to meet the needs of diverse students Aligned with the school-wide reward system Supportive of and aligned with the data collection system Supportive of behavioral and academic success Meaningful back-up reinforcers Varied to maintain student interest Age-appropriate Hierarchical: Small increments of success are recognized with small rewards
Slide 30 - Reinforcing Behaviors It is important to only reinforce behaviors which are observable and measureable. Clearly state the expectation – Example: Students who are quietly standing in line, facing forward, keeping their hands and feet to them self Non-Example: Students ready for lunch
Slide 31 - Guidelines Reward demonstration of school-wide expectations (contingent) Avoid trying to motivate by withholding incentives Avoid taking away incentives already earned Should target all students
Slide 32 - When Selecting Reinforcers. . . Remember: Not everyone is reinforced by the same reward Try to personalize the reinforcers by offering variety Rotate through different reinforcers so options vary throughout the year
Slide 33 - Tangible Reinforcements Pair tangible reinforcers with praise statements. Pairing tangibles with verbal praise gradually teaches students to become motivated by praise alone.
Slide 34 - Types of Reinforcers Sensory Natural Material Generalized Social
Slide 35 - Sensory Reinforcers Sensory reinforcers are things you can hear, see, smell, or touch: Listen to music Sit in special chair Hold a stuffed animal/toy Choose a poster Watch a movie
Slide 36 - Natural Reinforcers Natural reinforcers are things students like to do/ask to do during free time: Play a game Read a book Free time with a friend Play a sport Be in charge of materials Put up a bulletin board
Slide 37 - Material Reinforcers Material reinforcers work for students who require immediate reinforcement in smaller amounts: Stickers Materials: pencils, pens, paper, bookmarks Trading cards Movie Tickets Food coupons Juice drinks
Slide 38 - Generalized Reinforcers Generalized reinforcers work for students who can delay gratification, as the reinforcer is exchanged for an item of value at a later time: Raffle tickets Tokens Poker chips Points/credits
Slide 39 - Social Reinforcers Social reinforcers should be paired with other types of reinforcers when students are first learning new skills: Smile Wink Compliment Effective praise Proximity
Slide 40 - Sample Interaction Activity Thank you, Mary, for picking up the trash on the floor. Because you demonstrated responsibility, which is one of our expectations, I want to acknowledge you with a Beary Good Slip. Good job! Describe what the student did right Explain how the behavior relates to the expectation Verbally link the behavior with the reinforcer
Slide 41 - Low Cost Reinforcers Positive parent telephone contacts with students present Coupons (purchased with established numbers of tokens) for the following: Extra P.E. (Music, Art, Computer) Sit by a friend for a class period Use teacher’s chair at student’s desk Sit at teacher’s desk Lunch with teacher-once a month Earned activity period for a preferred activity Early release pass
Slide 42 - Summary Rewards are effective when Tied to specific behaviors Delivered soon after the behavior Age appropriate (actually valued by student) Delivered frequently Gradually faded away
Slide 43 - Evergreen Elementary Acknowledgement Systems
Slide 44 - Teaching Matrix Keeping it positive Staying fun Foundation
Slide 45 - Predictable and Tangible S.O.A.R. Slips Eagle Pride: Ask Me Why bracelets School Staff Teaching Points Playground: Line up when bell rings Fun teaching/reminder video Reinforcement Saturation Bus Drivers Immediate/High Frequency Acknowledgements
Slide 46 - Classroom Specific Acknowledgement Systems—(Becky Insert Pix?) Coin Program Punch Cards Class Compliments Points Immediate (cont’d.)
Slide 47 - Hallway Smackdowns Blue Wing vs Orange Wing Principal Pop-ins Bus Recognition Pencil Hand-Outs Sports Cards Hand-Outs Announcements Intermittent/Unexpected
Slide 48 - Golden Broom Hallways Introduction Assembly Intermittent/Unexpected (cont’d.)
Slide 49 - Golden Broom Before and After
Slide 50 - ppt slide no 50 content not found
Slide 51 - Golden Tray Lunchroom Golden Tray Promotional Intermittent (Cont’d.)
Slide 52 - Staff Acknowledgement Free Duty Coverage Arrive Late/Leave Early Coupons Staff Meetings Friday S.O.A.R. Slip Drawing S.O.A.R./Golden Tray Sample Intermittent/Unexpected (Cont’d.)
Slide 53 - Grade Level Quarterly Rewards Wall of Fame Mrs. Heinzen's 3rd Grade Mrs. Stadler's 1st Grade Handprint on Wall Long-Term Celebrations
Slide 54 - S.O.A.R-mometer Dance P.J. Day Icy-Pop Day Extra Recess Crazy Hair Day Dunk-Tank Long-Term Celebrations (cont’d.)
Slide 55 - Mindset Change “Do what you’re told V.S. “Acknowledging Positive Behaviors” Communication Whole Staff Parents Students—Teaching Stations—Recess Rodeo Challenges
Slide 56 - Consistency Between individual staff Between wings Follow-Through Action plan: What, How, Who indicated Keep it fresh Fun New staff Challenges (Cont’d.)
Slide 57 - Various Pictures: Compliment Tracker
Slide 58 - Hallway
Slide 59 - Recess Posters
Slide 60 - S.O.A.R. Board
Slide 61 - Recess Games
Slide 62 - Recess Games
Slide 63 - Student Leadership
Slide 64 - Wii Fun
Slide 65 - Wii Fun
Slide 66 - Frequently Asked Question #1 Shouldn’t children this age already know what is expected of them and how to behave? Behavior that is acknowledged is more likely to occur again. Behavior that is ignored is less likely to be repeated. No good behavior should be taken for granted or it may decline.
Slide 67 - Frequently Asked Question #2 Praising feels unnatural. Won’t kids think it sounds phony? The more you praise, the more natural it will feel. If you praise appropriate behaviors that truly happened, there is nothing phony about it. Kids who get praise will tend to praise others.
Slide 68 - Frequently Asked Question #3 Isn’t Praise Manipulative and Coercive? The purpose of praise is to reinforce and increase positive behavior with the student’s knowledge. Praise helps clearly describe expectations so that students can successfully meet them.
Slide 69 - Frequently Asked Question #4 Isn’t giving a reward like bribing students to do what you want them to do? A bribe attempts to influence or persuade someone to produce a desired behavior that hasn’t yet happened. A reward reinforces a desired behavior that has already happened.
Slide 70 - Frequently Asked Question #5 Won’t students come to depend on tangible rewards? Don’t extrinsic rewards decrease intrinsic motivation? Tangible rewards should be accompanied with social rewards. When a message that recognizes a student’s efforts as being responsible for success is given with a reward, internal motivation will actually be strengthened.
Slide 71 - Frequently Asked Question #6 Shouldn’t rewards be saved for special achievements? By acknowledging only the “big” behaviors, adults send the message that every day behaviors of courtesy, responsibility, and respect are not important. Small steps on the way to achievement need to be recognized.
Slide 72 - Frequently Asked Question #7 Do students in middle and high school still need acknowledgement? People of all ages, including adults, need to be recognized and acknowledged for their efforts. Students of all ages need recognition, praise, and rewards particularly during the difficult transition of adolescence.
Slide 73 - Acknowledgements Book-Best Behavior: Building Positive Behavior Supports in Schools. Sprague & Golly, 2004. PDF-LRBI Checklist: Positive Reinforcement. Utah State Office of Education: Least Restrictive Behavior Interventions (LRBI) Resources. PPT-Acknowledgement Systems: Catch ‘em being Good by Chris Borgemeier, PhD. Portland State University PPT-Maximizing Effectiveness Using Positive Behavior Support Methods in the Classroom: Reward Systems, Florida’s Positive Behavior Support Project PPT-Effective Classroom Practice: Strategies to Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior-Center for PBS, College of Education, University of Missouri
Slide 74 - References Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating Students to Learn. Boston: McGraw Hill. Conroy, M. A., Sutherland, K. S., Snyder, A., Al-Hendawi, M. & Vo, A. (2009). Creating a positive classroom atmosphere: Teachers’ use of effective praise and feedback. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), pp. 18-26. Evertson, C., & Emmer, E. (1982). Preventive classroom management. In D. Duke (Ed.), Helping teachers manage classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T. & Worsham, M.E. (2003). Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers. Boston: Pearson Education. Freiberg, J., Stein, T., & Huan, S. (1995). Effects of a classroom management intervention on student achievement in inner-city elementary schools. Educational Research and Evaluation, 1, 36-66. Good, T. & Brophy, J. (2000). Look Into Classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. IRIS Center, Research to Practice Instructional Strategies. Nashville: Vanderbilt University. Johnson, T.C., Stoner, G. & Green, S.K. (1996). Demonstrating the experimenting society model with classwide behavior management interventions. School Psychology Review, 25(2), 199-214. Kern, L., Clemens, N.H. (2007). Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 65-75. Newcomer, L. (2007, 2008). Positive Behavior Support in the Classroom. Unpublished presentation. Shores, R., Gunter, P., & Jack, S. (1993). Classroom management strategies: Are they setting events for coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 18, 92-102. Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D. & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for Research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), pp. 351-380.
Slide 75 - Resources: