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Slide 1 - Structure of Bacteria
Slide 2 - Chapter 4 Size of Bacteria Average bacteria 0.5 - 2.0 um in diam. RBC is 7.5 um in diam. Surface Area ~12 um^2 Volume is ~4 um Surface Area to Volume is 3:1 Typical Eukaryote Cell SA/Vol is 0.3:1 Food enters through SA, quickly reaches all parts of bacteria Eukaroytes need structures & organelles
Slide 3 - Chapter 4 Shapes of Bacteria Coccus Chain = Streptoccus Cluster = Staphylococcus Bacillus Chain = Streptobacillus Coccobacillus Vibrio = curved Spirillum Spirochete Square Star
Slide 4 - Chapter 4
Slide 5 - Chapter 4
Slide 6 - Chapter 4
Slide 7 - Chapter 4
Slide 8 - Chapter 4
Slide 9 - Chapter 4 Bacterial Structures Flagella Pili Capsule Plasma Membrane Cytoplasm Cell Wall Lipopolysaccharides Teichoic Acids Inclusions Spores
Slide 10 - Chapter 4 Flagella Motility - movement Swarming occurs with some bacteria Spread across Petri Dish Proteus species most evident Arrangement basis for classification Monotrichous; 1 flagella Lophotrichous; tuft at one end Amphitrichous; both ends Peritrichous; all around bacteria Observe Picture in Micro Lab.
Slide 11 - Chapter 4
Slide 12 - Chapter 4 Mono- or Lophotrichorus
Slide 13 - Chapter 4
Slide 14 - Chapter 4 Pili Short protein appendages smaller than flagella Adhere bacteria to surfaces E. coli has numerous types K88, K99, F41, etc. Antibodies to will block adherance F-pilus; used in conjugation Exchange of genetic information Flotation; increase boyancy Pellicle (scum on water) More oxygen on surface
Slide 15 - Chapter 4 F-Pilus for Conjugation
Slide 16 - Chapter 4 Capsule or Slime Layer Glycocalyx - Polysaccharide on external surface Adhere bacteria to surface S. mutans and enamel of teeth Prevents Phagocytosis Complement can’t penetrate sugars
Slide 17 - Chapter 4 Cytoplasm 80% Water {20% Salts-Proteins) Osmotic Shock important DNA is circular, Haploid Advantages of 1N DNA over 2N DNA More efficient; grows quicker Mutations allow adaptation to environment quicker Plasmids; extra circular DNA Antibiotic Resistance No organelles (Mitochondria, Golgi, etc.)
Slide 18 - Chapter 4 Cell Membrane Bilayer Phospholipid Water can penetrate Flexible Not strong, ruptures easily Osmotic Pressure created by cytoplasm
Slide 19 - Chapter 4
Slide 20 - Chapter 4
Slide 21 - Chapter 4
Slide 22 - Chapter 4 Cell Wall Peptido-glycan Polymer (amino acids + sugars) Unique to bacteria Sugars; NAG & NAM N-acetylglucosamine N-acetymuramic acid D form of Amino acids used not L form Hard to break down D form Amino acids cross link NAG & NAM
Slide 23 - Chapter 4
Slide 24 - Chapter 4
Slide 25 - Chapter 4
Slide 26 - Chapter 4
Slide 27 - Chapter 4
Slide 28 - Chapter 4
Slide 29 - Chapter 4 Cell Wall Summary Determine shape of bacteria Strength prevents osmotic rupture 20-40% of bacteria Unique to bacteria Some antibiotics effect directly Penicillin
Slide 30 - Chapter 4 Video Clip on Cell Wall
Slide 31 - Chapter 4 Teichoic Acids Gram + only Glycerol, Phosphates, & Ribitol Attachment for Phages
Slide 32 - Chapter 4
Slide 33 - Chapter 4 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Endotoxin or Pyrogen Fever causing Toxin nomenclature Endo- part of bacteria Exo- excreted into environment Structure Lipid A Polysaccharide O Antigen of E. coli, Salmonella G- bacteria only Alcohol/Acetone removes
Slide 34 - Chapter 4
Slide 35 - Chapter 4
Slide 36 - Chapter 4 LPS (cont’d) Functions Toxic; kills mice, pigs, humans G- septicemia; death due to LPS Pyrogen; causes fever DPT vaccination always causes fevers Adjuvant; stimulates immunity Heat Resistant; hard to remove Detection (all topical & IV products) Rabbits (measure fever) Horse shoe crab (Amoebocytes Lyse in presence of LPS)
Slide 37 - Chapter 4 LPS (cont’d.) Appearance of Colonies Mucoid = Smooth (lots of LPS or capsule) Dry = Rough (little LPS or capsule) O Antigen of Salmonella and E. coli 2,000 different O Ags of Salmonella 100’s different O Ags of E. coli E. coli O157 O Ags differ in Sugars, not Lipid A
Slide 38 - Chapter 4 Endospores Resistant structure Heat, irradiation, cold Boiling >1 hr still viable Takes time and energy to make spores Location important in classification Central, Subterminal, Terminal Bacillus stearothermophilus -spores Used for quality control of heat sterilization equipment Bacillus anthracis - spores Used in biological warfare
Slide 39 - Chapter 4
Slide 40 - Chapter 4
Slide 41 - Chapter 4 G+ vs. G- G+ Thicker cell wall Teichoic Acids G- Endotoxin - LPS Which are more sensitive to Penicllin? Alcohol/Acetone affects which more?
Slide 42 - Chapter 4 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Cell Wall Teichoic Acids LPS Endospores Circular DNA Plasmids
Slide 43 - Chapter 4 Eukaryote Cell Structure