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What is an antibody? An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell.
Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are derived from different cell lines.
According to differences in their heavy chain constant domains, immunoglobulins are grouped into five classes, or isotypes: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE.
IgG: IgG1 (66%), IgG2 (23%), IgG3 (7%) and IgG4 (4%) , blood and tissue liquid.
IgA:IgA1 (90%) and IgA2 (10%), stomach and intestines
IgM: normally pentamer, ocassionally hexamer, multiple immunoglobins linked with disulfide bonds
IgD:1% of proteins in the plasma membranes of B-lymphocytes, function unknown
IgE: on the surface of plasma membrane of mast cells, play a role in immediate hypersensitive and denfensive for parasite