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About Human Back pain PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Mar 14, 2014

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  • Slide 1 - Case of Back Pain 53 year old, right handed lady, hotelier 3 day history of severe lower back pain and weakness in her legs bending over at work and had noticed a mild back pain, which progressed Night and rest pain, leg radiation, worse with movement. Unable to walk
  • Slide 2 - Case of Back Pain Sep 05Haematologists shoulder pains, lymphadenopathy and rash, fatigue, 7 kg weight loss in 6 months l-node < 1cm ALP 210 Rheum referral Subsequently admitted Ex In pain restricted spine ? leg weakness and altered sensation feet
  • Slide 3 - Case of Back Pain ALP 320, ALT 89 CRP 96 XR normal MRI spine normal Symptoms progressed Tingling in upper limbs, noted to have reduced reflexes
  • Slide 4 - Case of Back Pain CSF protein 2.55 g ?Guillan-Barre Transferred to neurology IV Ig, Rehab, FVC, vitals monitoring Campylobacter IgG and IgA 160 EBV +ve
  • Slide 5 - GB syndrome Post-infective acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy 1-3 weeks post viral Distal numbness and weakness – evolves over days to weeks ascending Back and leg pain can be a feature 20% severe with autonomic and respiratory complications Weakness, areflexia, sensory loss
  • Slide 6 - GB syndrome Rare – ocular and ataxia – Miller-Fisher syndrome NCS: slowing of conduction or block CSF: 1-3g/l IV Ig, supportive, ventilation, plasmapharesis, rehab
  • Slide 7 - BACK PAIN Jaya Ravindran Rheumatologist
  • Slide 8 - Causes Simple mechanical eg ligamentous strain Degenerative disease with/without neural, cord or canal compromise Metabolic – osteoporosis, Pagets Inflammatory – Ankylosing spondylitis Infective – bacterial and TB Neoplastic Others, (trauma,congenital) Visceral
  • Slide 9 - Red flags Age <20 or >50 with back pain for the 1st time Thoracic pain >50 yrs Pain following a violent injury/trauma Unremitting, progressive pain
  • Slide 10 - Red flags Past or current history of cancer On Steroids or immunosuppressants Drug abuser or +ve HIV Systemic symptoms - fever, appetitie and weight loss, malaise
  • Slide 11 - Red flags Bilateral leg radiation, sensory/motor/sphincter symptoms Pain predominantly at night
  • Slide 12 - Inflammatory flags Morning stiffness and pain >30 mins -1 hr Better with activity Peripheral joint involvement Anterior uveitis Psoriasis Inflammatory bowel disease Recent GI or GU infection Family history
  • Slide 13 - Myotomes C5 Deltoid, biceps (biceps jerk) C6 Wrist extensors, biceps (biceps, brachioradialis jerk) C7 Wrist flexors, finger extensors, triceps (triceps jerk) C8 Finger flexor, thumb extensors (triceps jerk) T1 finger abductors
  • Slide 14 - Myotomes L2 Hip flexion L3 Knee extension (knee jerk) L4 Knee extension, ankle dorsiflexion (knee jerk) L5 toe dorsiflexion S1 foot plantar flexion, eversion
  • Slide 15 - DERMATOMES
  • Slide 16 - Examination LOOK – deformity, muscle wasting, kyphosis, scoliosis LOOK – normal cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis FEEL – spinal processes and sacroiliac joints
  • Slide 17 - Examination MOVE – Lumbar flexion Schober’s test – marks at “dimples of Venus” and 10 cm above. Measure at maximal flexion – usually 5 cm MOVE – Lumbar lateral flexion MOVE – Cervical flexion/extension, lateral rotation and flexion, thoracic rotation
  • Slide 18 - Examination Sciatic stretch (patient supine) - Straight leg raise and dorsiflexion of foot - pain in calf and posterior thigh between 30-70o – low lumbar (L5/S1) lesion or sciatic irritation Femoral stretch (patient prone) – knee is flexed and then hip extended – pain in anterior thigh – high lumbar (L2-L4) lesion
  • Slide 19 - Imaging XR – tumour, fracture, infection, inflammation Bone scan – increased turnover eg infection, metastatic disease, fractures, Pagets MRI – soft tissue, discs, facet joint, nerve roots, cord, inflammation
  • Slide 20 - Degenerative disease and sciatica Very common Facet joint OA, disc disease, osteophyte Mechanical back pain Sciatica – most resolve NB persistent, neurology, bilateral, red flags Analgesia, PT, pain clinics
  • Slide 21 - Degenerative disease and sciatica
  • Slide 22 - Malignancy Unremittting, progressive and night pain Systemic symtoms Past hx Ca Breast, bronchus, thyroid, kidney, prostate and myeloma/plasmacytoma Osteolytic (prostate osteoblastic) XR can be normal in early stages – further imaging if suspicion high Predilection for vertebral body and pedicles
  • Slide 23 - Malignancy
  • Slide 24 - Malignancy
  • Slide 25 - Infection discitis, osteomyelitis, and epidural abscess. hematogenously spread most often Staphylococcus aureus. Gram-negative rods in postoperative or immunocompromised patients normal skin flora is less commonly isolated in postoperative patients. Postoperative patients develop symptoms 2 to 4 weeks after surgery after an initial improvement in pain.
  • Slide 26 - Infection Pseudomonas organisms in intravenous drug users. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in developing nations and immigrant population. Fungal infections are rare. Only one third have fever and 3% to 15% present with neurologic deficit. Infections typically involve the intervertebral disc and vertebral body endplate
  • Slide 27 - Infection Radiographic changes at 2 to 4 weeks bone scan can be positive as early as 2 days 75% specific. MRI appearance is decreased T1- and increased T2-weighted signal in the infected disk. Enhancement after gadolinium
  • Slide 28 - Infection Conservative treatment of antibiotics, rigid bracing to prevent deformity and control pain Surgery : neurologic deficit, presence of abscess, extensive bone loss with kyphosis and instability, failure of blood work and biopsy to isolate any organism, excision of a sinus tract, or no response to conservative treatment.
  • Slide 29 - Infection
  • Slide 30 - Infection
  • Slide 31 - Osteoporosis
  • Slide 32 - DEXA
  • Slide 33 - T scores
  • Slide 34 - Osteoporosis
  • Slide 35 - Low bone density
  • Slide 36 - Osteoporosis - risks History of low trauma # - colles, NOF, vertebral, sacral or pelvic insufficiency Steroids Maternal history of NOF # Gonadal hormone deficiency Ca deficiency Prolonged immobility Low BMI Alcohol and smoking
  • Slide 37 - Causes of low bone density
  • Slide 38 - Vertebral fractures
  • Slide 39 - Osteoporosis
  • Slide 40 - Osteoporosis Bisphosphonates SERMs Strontium Teriparatide Calcitonin Lifestyle factors Ca and Vit D
  • Slide 41 - 7-dehydrocholesterol sunlight cholecalciferol (diet) liver 25-hydroxycholecalciferol kidney 1-hydroxylase 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (-) increased GI Ca2+ absorption Ca2+ Bone resorption Thyroid (-) Parathyroid Gland PTH  Renal Ca2+ (-) Calcitonin reabsorption
  • Slide 42 - Spinal stenosis Canal or foraminal narrowing with possible subsequent neural compression Cause Ligamanetum flavum hypertrophy, facet joint hypertrophy, vertebral body osteophytes, herniated disc Rare: Pagets, AS, acromegaly
  • Slide 43 - Spinal stenosis Symptoms Age - >50 Dull aching pain in the lower back and legs Exertional leg pain/weakness/numbness Symptoms relieved leaning forward, sitting or lying Examination May be normal Normal sensation and power Reflexes normal or slightly reduced Normal foot pulses
  • Slide 44 - Spinal stenosis
  • Slide 45 - Spinal stenosis Conservative – analgesics, NSAIDs, PT, epidural Surgery – laminectomy (+arthrodesis)
  • Slide 46 - Cauda Equina Syndrome Back pain, lower limb weakness, saddle anaesthesia, sphincter disturbance, impotence Causes – usually disc, rarely tumour, abscess, advanced AS Diminished sensation L4 to S2 (sacral numbness), weakness ankle and plantar dorsiflexion, loss ankle jerks, urinary retention, loss anal tone Urgent MRI and surgical decompression
  • Slide 47 - Cauda Equina Syndrome
  • Slide 48 - Pagets
  • Slide 49 - Pagets Pain, deformity Skull, long bone, vertebra, pelvis, near hip Neurologic compromise Planned surgery ?ALP 2X ULN Rare: high output failure
  • Slide 50 - AS
  • Slide 51 - AS NSAIDs Sulphasalazine – peripheral joints PT Anti-TNF
  • Slide 52 - AS
  • Slide 53 - AS
  • Slide 54 - AS
  • Slide 55 - THE END THANK-YOU
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