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Slide 1 - Author(s): Seetha Monrad, M.D., 2009 License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 License: We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximize your ability to use, share, and adapt it. The citation key on the following slide provides information about how you may share and adapt this material. Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact with any questions, corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content. For more information about how to cite these materials visit Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. Please speak to your physician if you have questions about your medical condition. Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers.
Slide 2 - Citation Key for more information see: Use + Share + Adapt Make Your Own Assessment Creative Commons – Attribution License Creative Commons – Attribution Share Alike License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike License GNU – Free Documentation License Creative Commons – Zero Waiver Public Domain – Ineligible: Works that are ineligible for copyright protection in the U.S. (17 USC § 102(b)) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Public Domain – Expired: Works that are no longer protected due to an expired copyright term. Public Domain – Government: Works that are produced by the U.S. Government. (17 USC § 105) Public Domain – Self Dedicated: Works that a copyright holder has dedicated to the public domain. Fair Use: Use of works that is determined to be Fair consistent with the U.S. Copyright Act. (17 USC § 107) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Our determination DOES NOT mean that all uses of this 3rd-party content are Fair Uses and we DO NOT guarantee that your use of the content is Fair. To use this content you should do your own independent analysis to determine whether or not your use will be Fair. { Content the copyright holder, author, or law permits you to use, share and adapt. } { Content Open.Michigan believes can be used, shared, and adapted because it is ineligible for copyright. } { Content Open.Michigan has used under a Fair Use determination. }
Slide 3 - Evaluating diffuse aches and pains: It’s not all fibromyalgia (but often it is) Seetha Monrad MD Fall 2009
Slide 4 - Case presentation A patient presents with diffuse myalgias, fatigue, and weakness
Slide 5 - Approach to evaluation Does this represent rheumatic symptoms of an endocrinopathy? Hypo- or hyper-thyroidism Hypogonadism, diabetes, acromegaly, adrenal disease, parathyroid disease Could this be a toxic/drug effect? Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) Ethanol Zidovudine, clofibrate, cyclosporine Is this a paraneoplastic process? Is this a systemic inflammatory rheumatic disease? Is this a chronic pain syndrome?
Slide 6 - Case 1: HPI A 70 year old man presents to your clinic complaining of “aches and pains”. On closer questioning, he notes Gradual onset over the past 6 months Morning stiffness lasting 2-3 hours Symmetric pain predominantly localized in his shoulders and hips, making it difficult to get out of a chair or comb his hair No other systemic symptoms
Slide 7 - Case 1: Objective Elderly man in mild discomfort Decreased active ROM in neck, shoulders, and hip flexors; a little tenderness to palpation in those areas Normal strength Hgb 11.2 g/dL (nl 12-36) CK 40 IU/L (WNL) TSH, T4 WNL ESR 96 mm/hr (nl 0-20)
Slide 8 - Polymyalgia rheumatica Never occurs before age 50 Common: in older persons prevalence approaches that of rheumatoid arthritis (approximately 1 percent) F:M 2:1, northern latitudes, Caucasians HLA-DR4 association
Slide 9 - Polymyalgia rheumatica Diagnosis: Clinical presentation Elevated inflammatory parameters (ESR) – sometimes > 100 Differential: Some overlap with RA Treatment: Exquisitely sensitive to “low” dose steroids (<20 mg/day) Duration of treatment prolonged – 1-2 years
Slide 10 - Relationship to giant cell arteritis PMR is present in about 50 percent of patients with GCA GCA occurs in approximately 15 percent of patients with PMR Significant overlap in age of presentation, ethnicity/geography, HLA associations Need to screen all PMR patients for GCA signs: headache, scalp tenderness, visual changes, jaw claudication, prominent temporal arteries
Slide 11 - Case 2: HPI A 55 year old woman presents with “aches and pains”. On closer questioning, she notes Gradual onset over the past 6 months Morning stiffness lasting 2-3 hours Difficulty getting out of a chair, climbing stairs, combing her hair, and reaching for jars in high cupboards; not actual pain with attempting these activities No difficulty holding the comb or standing on toes to get to cupboards Drawing of a person struggling up stairs removed
Slide 12 - Case 2: Exam & labs Minimal muscle tenderness; no joint swelling or tenderness Significant proximal muscle weakness in both upper and lower extremities No other neurologic abnormalities CK elevated
Slide 13 - Important This could easily be a presentation of statin myopathy or hypothyroidism (and statistically these are the most likely) Also a presentation of an inflammatory myopathy, especially if CK highly elevated
Slide 14 - Inflammatory myopathy Polymyositis, dermatomyositis (inclusion body myositis) Bimodal age distribution Female predominance; African American Proximal muscle weakness Diagnosis Elevated muscle enzymes EMG abnormalities Muscle biopsy: inflammation Source Undetermined
Slide 15 - Dermatomyositis: Gottron’s sign Source Undetermined Source Undetermined
Slide 16 - Dermatomyositis: Heliotrope rash Source Undetermined Source Undetermined
Slide 17 - Shawl sign Mechanic’s hands Periungual erythema Source Undetermined Source Undetermined Source Undetermined
Slide 18 - Inflammatory myositis Treatment Prednisone (1 mg/kg) Methotrexate and/or azathioprine as steroid sparing agents For rapidly progressive or refractory cases, IVIG or rituximab Association with malignancy (especially if older onset)
Slide 19 - Case: History A 48 year old woman presents with diffuse muscle pain, weakness and significant fatigue. She reports Symptoms for over 3 years that have become slightly worse in the past 6 months Generalized pain and fatigue that limit her ability to work Sleep disturbance
Slide 20 - Case: Objective findings General physical exam: Normal vital signs Diffuse tenderness to palpation Some tenderness around joints, but no obvious synovitis Normal neurologic exam; no objective muscle weakness Labs: CBC, ESR, CRP, chemistry profile, TSH normal
Slide 21 - History 1900s: “fibrositis”: inflammation of fibrous tissue overlying muscles 1970s: “fibromyalgia” 1990: American College of Rheumatology criteria Chronic widespread pain in all four quadrants of the body and axial skeleton 11/18 tender points (pain with 4 kg pressure) Source Undetermined
Slide 22 - Fibromyalgia Central pain syndrome with widespread pain and fatigue Central pain: differs from Nociceptive pain Neuropathic pain Part of a larger spectrum of central sensitivity disorders
Slide 23 - Fibromyalgia 2%-4% of population Defined by widespread pain and tenderness Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) 1% of population Fatigue and 4 of 8 “minor criteria” Somatoform Disorders 4% of population multiple unexplained symptoms without “organic” findings Regional Pain Syndromes Overlapping Systemic Syndromes Clauw, Neuroimmunomodulation. 1997 Pain and/or sensory amplification Psychiatric Disorders Major depression OCD Bipolar PTSD Generalized anxiety disorder Panic attack
Slide 24 - Overlapping regional syndromes Tension/migraine headache Temporomandibular joint syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome Interstitial cystitis/ painful bladder syndrome Chronic pelvic pain/ vulvodynia/primary dysmenorrhea Idiopathic low back pain Cognitive difficulties ENT complaints (sicca, vasomotor rhinitis) Vestibular complaints Esophageal dysmotility Multiple chemical sensitivity, “allergic” symptoms Non-cardiac chest pain
Slide 25 - The neurologist sees chronic headache, the gastroenterologist sees IBS, the otolaryngologist sees TMJ syndrome, the cardiologist sees costochondritis, the rheumatologist sees fibromyalgia, and the gynecologist sees PMS. Cartoon of a thoroughly examined elephant removed
Slide 26 - Epidemiology 2-3% general population, 4% of women (using ACR criteria) Chronic widespread pain ~10% Women more likely to seek treatment ~8:1
Slide 27 - Pathophysiology Genetics First degree relatives have an eight-fold greater risk of developing FM Family members more likely to have other regional pain syndromes Several potentially related polymorphisms affecting metabolism/transport of monoamines
Slide 28 - Pathophysiology Environmental factors: associated with FM in 5-10% of those exposed Early life trauma Physical trauma Peripheral pain syndromes/autoimmune disorders Psychological stress/distress Certain infections (hepatitis C, EBV, parvovirus, Lyme disease) Certain catastrophic events
Slide 29 - Aberrant sensory and pain processing “Volume control” problem Lowered pain threshhold throughout entire body Global problem with sensory processing: e.g. loudness sensitivity
Slide 30 - Gracely, Arthritis Rheum 2002
Slide 31 - Other biomarkers Increased CSF levels of glutamate Normal/high levels of CSF enkephalins Decreased CSF levels of biogenic monoamines (products of serotonin, norepinephrine)
Slide 32 - Diagnosis: History Pain Current and lifetime history of widespread pain Involving musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal areas Unpredictable, worsened by stress Can also have stiffness, paresthesias Fatigue Insomnia, sleep disturbance Memory difficulties
Slide 33 - Diagnosis PMH: Comorbid syndromes FHX: other family members with pain syndromes PE: Diffuse tenderness
Slide 34 - Evaluation If acute/subacute, may warrant further investigation, including Inflammatory markers CBC, chemistry profile TSH, Vitamin D NOT autoantibodies unless clinically indicated If chronic, less need for extensive work-up
Slide 35 - Treatment: Principles Dadabhoy/Clauw, 2008
Slide 36 - Treatment: Prinicples Education Aerobic Exercise Cognitive behavioral therapy Pharmacologic therapy
Slide 37 - Treatment: Education Screenshot by S. Monrad, UMHS
Slide 38 - Treatment: Exercise Aerobic Highly effective Key barriers: tolerance, compliance, adherence Recommendations: At least twice a week (more if possible) Start low, go slow Treat exercise as a medication
Slide 39 - Treatment: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Teaches patients techniques to reduce symptoms, increase coping strategies, and identify/correct maladaptive behavior strategies Especially beneficial for improving functioning
Slide 40 - Treatment: Pharmacologic Dual norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors Tricyclic antidepressants: amitryptiline, nortriptyline Cyclobenzaprine Venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran Anticonvulsants Pregabalin Gabapentin Other: tramadol, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, sedatives
Slide 41 - Treatment: Pharmacologic Not indicated in fibromyalgia NSAIDs Corticosteroids Opioids
Slide 42 - Summary Generate a broad differential for the patient presenting with diffuse aches and pains, and eliminate appropriately For the diagnosis of FM: Education is KEY Manage symptoms of pain, insomnia, comorbid depression, etc. with appropriate therapeutics Emphasize the essential role of low grade exercise If possible, utilize cognitive behavioral therapy to assist with improved functioning
Slide 43 - Additional Source Information for more information see: Slide 14: Source Undetermined Slide 15: Source Undetermined; Source Undetermined Slide 16: Source Undetermined; Source Undetermined Slide 21: Source Undetermined Slide 23: Clauw, Neuroimmunomodulation. 1997 Slide 30: Gracely, Arthritis Rheum 2002 Slide 35: Dadabhoy/Clauw, 2008 Slide 37: Screenshot by S. Monrad, UMHS