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Slide 1 - Neuroradiology Dr. Grant J. Linnell Fellow Montreal Neurological Hospital McGill University
Slide 2 - CT Basics Neuroradiology The BASICS of CT CT History Protocol Terminology Contrast Radiation Safety Cases
Slide 3 - CT Basics Neuroradiology The BASICS of CT CT History Protocol Terminology Contrast Radiation Safety Cases
Slide 4 - CT Basics No disclosures
Slide 5 - Neuroradiologist A consultant in imaging and disease of the brain, spinal cord, head, neck, face and peripheral nerves
Slide 6 - Neuroradiology Plain Film CT US MRI Interventional Angiography Myelography Biopsy Nuclear Medicine
Slide 7 - Neuroradiology A request for an exam is a consultation History Pertinent physical exam findings Lab results Creatinine PT/INR What is the question?
Slide 8 - CT Basics Computed tomography (CT) Computed axial tomography or computer –assisted tomography (CAT)
Slide 9 - CT Basics
Slide 10 - CT Basics Neuroradiology The BASICS of CT CT History Protocol Terminology Contrast Radiation Safety Cases
Slide 11 - CT History Electro-Musical Instruments
Slide 12 - CT HistorySIR GODFREY N. HOUNSFIELD 1979 Nobel Laureate in Medicine
Slide 13 - CT History 1972 – First clinical CT scanner Used for head examinations Water bath required 80 x 80 matrix 4 minutes per revolution 1 image per revolution 8 levels of grey Overnight image reconstruction
Slide 14 - CT History 2004 – 64 slice scanner 1024 x 1024 matrix 0.33s per revolution 64 images per revolution 0.4mm slice thickness 20 images reconstructed/second
Slide 15 - CT Basics Neuroradiology The BASICS of CT CT History Protocol Terminology Contrast Radiation Safety Cases
Slide 16 - CT Protocolling What happens when an exam is requested? A requisiton is completed. The requested exam is protocolled according to history, physical exam and previous exams. The patient information is confirmed. The exam is then performed. Images are ready to be interpreted in … Uncomplicated exam – 5-10 minutes after completion Complicated exams with reconstructions take at least 1 hour but usually 1-2 hours.
Slide 17 - CT Protocolling CT head protocols With or Without contrast CT Brain CT Brain with posterior fossa images CT Angiogram/Venogram CT Perfusion CT of Sinuses CT of Orbit CT of Temporal bones CT of Mastoid bones CT of Skull CT of Face
Slide 18 - CT Protocolling Variables Plain or contrast enhanced Slice positioning Slice thickness Slice orientation Slice spacing and overlap Timing of imaging and contrast administration Reconstruction algorhithm Radiation dosimetry
Slide 19 - CT Protocolling Patient Information Is the patient pregnant? Radiation safety Can the patient cooperate for the exam?
Slide 20 - CT Basics Neuroradiology The BASICS of CT CT History Protocol Terminology Contrast Radiation Safety Cases (Stroke)
Slide 21 - CT Terminology Exams using Ionizing radiation Plain film CT 1/10 of all exams 2/3 OF RADIATION EXPOSURE Fluoroscopy Angiography, barium studies Nuclear medicine V/Q scan, bone scan
Slide 22 - CT Terminology Attenuation Hyperattenuating (hyperdense) Hypoattenuating (hypodense) Isoattenuating (isodense) Attenuation is measured in Hounsfield units Scale -1000 to 1000 -1000 is air 0 is water 1000 is cortical bone
Slide 23 - CT Terminology What we can see The brain is grey White matter is usually dark grey (40) Grey matter is usually light grey (45) CSF is black (0) Things that are brite on CT Bone or calcification (>300) Contrast Hemorrhage (Acute ~ 70) Hypercellular masses Metallic foreign bodies
Slide 24 - CT Terminology Voxel Volume element A voxel is the 2 dimensional representation of a 3 dimensional pixel (picture element). Partial volume averaging
Slide 25 - CT Terminology
Slide 26 - CT Terminology Window Width Number of Hounsfield units from black to white Level or Center Hounsfield unit approximating mid-gray
Slide 27 - CT Terminology
Slide 28 - CT Artifacts
Slide 29 - CT Terminology Digital reading stations are the standard of care in interpretation of CT and MRI. Why? Volume of images Ability to manipulate and reconstruct images Cost
Slide 30 - CT Terminology DICOM Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine DICOM provides standardized formats for images, a common information model, application service definitions, and protocols for communication.
Slide 31 - CT Basics Neuroradiology The BASICS of CT CT History Protocol Terminology Contrast Radiation Safety Cases
Slide 32 - Contrast Barium Iodinated vascular Biliary, Urinary CSF Gadolinium
Slide 33 - Contrast
Slide 34 - Contrast Types of iodinated contrast Ionic Nonionic - standard of care No change in death rate from reaction but number of reactions is decreased by factor of 4. If an enhanced study is needed, patient needs to be NPO at least 4 hours and have no contraindication to contrast, ie allergy or renal insufficiency.
Slide 35 - Contrast What are the risks of iodinated contrast? Contrast reaction 1 in 10,000 have true anaphylactic reaction 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 1,000,000 will die Medical Issues Acute renal failure Lactic acidosis in diabetics If on Glucophage, patient must stop Glucophage for 48 hours after exam to prevent serious lactic acidosis Cardiac Extravasation
Slide 36 - Contrast Who is at risk for an anaphylactic reaction? Patients with a prior history of contrast reaction Patients with a history asthma react at a rate of 1 in 2,000 Patients with multiple environmental allergies, ie foods, hay fever, medications Amin MM, et al. Ionic and nonionic contrast media: Current status and controversies. Appl Radiol 1993; 22: 41-54.
Slide 37 - Contrast Pretreatment for anaphylaxis 50 mg Oral Prednisone 13, 7 and 1 hour prior to exam 50 mg oral Benedryl 1 hour prior to exam In emergency, 200 mg iv hydrocortisone 2-4 hours prior to exam
Slide 38 - Contrast What are the risk factors for contrast induced acute renal failure? Pre-existing renal insufficiency Contrast volume Dehydration Advanced age Drugs Multiple myeloma Cardiac failure
Slide 39 - Contrast Considerations in patients with renal insufficiency Is the exam necessary? Is there an alternative exam that can answer the question? Decrease contrast dose
Slide 40 - Contrast Pretreatment for renal insufficiency Hydration Mucomyst 600 mg po BID the day before and day of study Prevention of radiographic-contrast-agent-induced reductions in renal function by acetylcysteine. Tepel M, et al. N Engl J Med 2000 Jul 20;343(3):180-4
Slide 41 - Contrast Contrast induced renal failure Elevated creatinine 24-48 hours after contrast which resolves over 7-21 days. Can require dialysis Mehran, R. et al. Radiocontrast induced renal failure:Allocations and outcomes. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine Vol. 2 Supp. 1 2001
Slide 42 - CT Basics Neuroradiology The BASICS of CT CT History Protocol Terminology Contrast Radiation Safety Cases
Slide 43 - Radiation Safety Diagnostic CT Scans: Assessment of Patient, Physician, and Radiologist Awareness of Radiation Dose and Possible Risks Lee, C. et al. Radiology 2004;231:393
Slide 44 - Radiation Safety Deterministic Effects Have a threshold below which no effect will be seen. Stochastic Effects Have no threshold and the effects are based on the dose x quality factor.
Slide 45 - Radiation Safety Terminology Gy = Gray is the absorbed dose (SI unit) The equivalent of 1 joule/kg of tissue Rad = radiation absorbed dose Sv = Sievert is the dose equivalent (SI unit) Absorbed dose multiplied by a quality factor Rem = radiation equivalent man
Slide 46 - Radiation Safety Relative values of CT exam exposure Background radiation is 3 mSv/year Water, food, air, solar In Denver (altitude 5280 ft.) 10 mSv/year CXR = 0.1 mSv CT head = 2 mSv CT Chest = 8 mSv CT Abdomen and Pelvis = 20 mSv -The equivalent of 200 CXR
Slide 47 - Radiation Safety Effects of X rays. Absorption of photons by biological material leads to breakage of chemical bonds. The principal biological effect results from damage to DNA caused by either the direct or indirect action of radiation.
Slide 48 - Radiation Safety Tissue/Organ radiosensitivity Fetal cells Lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues; intestinal epithelium Epidermal, esophageal, oropharyngeal epithelia Interstitial connective tissue, fine vasculature Renal, hepatic, and pancreatic tissue Muscle and neuronal tissue
Slide 49 - Radiation Safety Estimated Risks of Radiation-Induced Fatal Cancer from Pediatric CT David J. Brenner, et al. AJR 2001; 176:289-296 Additional 170 cancer deaths for each year of head CT in the US. 140,000 total cancer deaths, therefore ~ 0.12% increase 1 in 1500 will die from radiologically induced cancer
Slide 50 - Radiation Safety 3094 men received radiation for hemangioma Those receiving >100 mGy Decreased high school attendance Lower cognitive test scores Per Hall, et al. Effect of low doses of ionising radiation in infancy on cognitive function in adulthood: Swedish population based cohort studyBMJ, Jan 2004; 328: 19 - 0.
Slide 51 - Radiation Safety Hiroshima and Nagasaki There has been no detectable increase in genetic defects related to radiation in a large sample (80,000) of survivor offspring, including: congenital abnormalities, mortality (including childhood cancers), chromosome aberrations, or mutations in biochemically identifiable genes. William J Schull, Effects of Atomic Radiation: A Half-Century of Studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1995.
Slide 52 - Radiation Safety Hiroshima and Nagasaki However, exposed individuals who survived the acute effects were later found to suffer increased incidence of cancer of essentially all organs. William J Schull, Effects of Atomic Radiation: A Half-Century of Studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1995.
Slide 53 - Radiation Safety Hiroshima and Nagasaki Most victims with high doses died Victims with low doses despite their large numbers are still statistically insignificant.
Slide 54 - Radiation Safety Comparison of Image Quality Between Conventional and Low-Dose Nonenhanced Head CT Mark E. Mullinsa, et al. AJNR April 2004. Reduction of mAs from 170 to 90
Slide 55 - Radiation Safety What does all this mean? 1 CXR approximates the same risk as: 1 year watching TV (CRT) 1 coast to coast airplane flight 3 puffs on a cigarette 2 days living in Denver 1 Head CT is approximately 20 CXR Health Physics Society on the web--http://hps.org
Slide 56 - Radiation Safety The pregnant patient Can another exam answer the question? What is the gestational age? Counsel the patient 3% of all deliveries have some type of spontaneous abnormality The mother’s health is the primary concern.
Slide 57 - Radiation Safety "No single diagnostic procedure results in a radiation dose that threatens the well-being of the developing embryo and fetus." -- American College of Radiology "Women should be counseled that x-ray exposure from a single diagnostic procedure does not result in harmful fetal effects. Specifically, exposure to less than 5 rad has not been associated with an increase in fetal anomalies or pregnancy loss." -- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Slide 58 - Conclusion Neuroradiologists are consultants Garbage in ------- Garbage out CT Terminology Attenuation (density) in Hounsfield units Digital interpretation is standard of care CT has risks Contrast Radiation exposure
Slide 59 - CT Basics Neuroradiology The BASICS of CT CT History Protocol Terminology Contrast Radiation Safety Cases
Slide 60 - Normal CT
Slide 61 - 1 day 1 year 2 years
Slide 62 - Normal CTOlder person
Slide 63 - Normal Enhanced CT
Slide 64 - Case 1 55 yo female with sudden onset of worst headache of life
Slide 65 - Case 1
Slide 66 - Case 1
Slide 67 - Case 1 What do I do now?
Slide 68 - CTA
Slide 69 - Normal Angiography
Slide 70 - Diagnostic Angiography
Slide 71 - Case 1 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Most common cause is trauma Aneurysm Vascular malformation Tumor Meningitis Generally a younger age group
Slide 72 - Case 2 82 yo male with mental status change after a fall
Slide 73 - Case 2
Slide 74 - Case 2 Subdural hematoma Venous bleeding from bridging veins General presentation Older age group Mental status change after fall 50% have no trauma history
Slide 75 - Subdural Hematoma
Slide 76 - Case 3 44 yo female with right sided weakness and inability to speak
Slide 77 - Case 3
Slide 78 - Case 3 Acute ischemic left MCA stroke
Slide 79 - MCA Stroke“Dense MCA”
Slide 80 - Case 4 50 yo male post head trauma. Pt was initially conscious but now 3 hours post trauma has had a sudden decrease in his neurological function.
Slide 81 - Case 4
Slide 82 - Case 4 Epidural hematoma Typical history is a patient with head trauma who has a period of lucidity after trauma but then deteriorates rapidly. Hemorrhage is a result of a tear through a meningeal artery.
Slide 83 - Case 5 71 yo male who initially complained of incoordination of his left hand and subsequently collapsed
Slide 84 - Case 5
Slide 85 - Case 5 Intraparenchymal hemorrhage Hypertensive Amyloid angiopathy Tumor Trauma
Slide 86 - Case 6 62 yo female acute onset headache Hemiplegic on the right and unable to speak
Slide 87 - Case 6 Add htn image here
Slide 88 - Case 6 Hypertensive hemorrhage Clinically looks like a large MCA stroke Generally younger than amyloid angiopathy patients
Slide 89 - Chronic Ischemic change =Encephalomalacia
Slide 90 - Thrombolysis: Intravenous 3 hours Intra-arterial 6 hours ICA territory 24 hours basilar territory CT head plain shows no established stroke nor hemorrhage CT perfusion shows a salvagable penumbra
Slide 91 - Case 7 53 y.o. male Sudden onset of ataxia loss of consciousness proceeding rapidly to coma
Slide 92 - ppt slide no 92 content not found
Slide 93 - Case 7 Probable basilar occlusion with cerebellar and brainstem infarction
Slide 94 - Case 8 52 yo male with right sided weakness
Slide 95 - Case 8
Slide 96 - Case 8
Slide 97 - Case 8 Acute lacunar infarction Cannot reliably differentiate this finding on CT from remote lacune without clinical correlation. MRI with diffusion is the GOLD STANDARD A word on TIA
Slide 98 - Chronic Small Vessel Disease
Slide 99 - Case 9 59 yo female with multiple falls over last weekend
Slide 100 - Case 9
Slide 101 - Case 9 Stroke involving caudate head, anterior limb internal capsule and anterior putamen. What is the artery? Recurrent artery of Heubner
Slide 102 - Case 10 42 yo male found in coma
Slide 103 - Case 10
Slide 104 - Case 10 Global ischemia
Slide 105 - Angiographic Brain Death
Slide 106 - Case 11 24 yo male with siezures
Slide 107 - Case 11
Slide 108 - Case 11 Heterotopia
Slide 109 - Case 12 34 y.o. female Severe H/A,nausea Taking oral contraceptives
Slide 110 - Case 12
Slide 111 - Case 12
Slide 112 - Case 12 Transverse sinus thrombosis