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Published on : Mar 14, 2014
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Slide 1 - Dr. Amanj Burhan specialist Neurosurgeon BRAIN ABSCESS 3/18/2014 1 Brain Abscess
Slide 2 - INCIDENCE: ETIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY PATHOGENESIS CLINICAL PRESENTATION DIAGNOSIS MANAGEMENT OUTCOME 3/18/2014 2 Brain Abscess
Slide 3 - INCIDENCE Is 1-2% of SOL in brain (USA) Is 8% (INDIA) Decreased incidence (because of antibiotic and improved life) Lastly increased incidence because of opportunistic infection in immune compromised patient . 3/18/2014 3 Brain Abscess
Slide 4 - ETIOLOGY 1.Infection : From PNS ,middle ear and mastoid Characterized by solitary and located superficially Infection spread by either direct or through veins(thrombophlibitis of diploic vein) PNS (frontal and temporal lobe ) Middle ear (temporal lobe) mastoid (temporal lobe and cerebellum) 3/18/2014 4 Brain Abscess
Slide 5 - 2. Heamatogenous hematogenous dissemination microorganism from remote site of infection The abscess are multiple and deeply located Mostly located in the frontal and parietal lobe? Primary foci include (skin pustule ,pulmonary infection , diverticulitis …etc. In Cyanotic cong. Heart dis. Brain abscess is leading cause of mortality and morbidity Most common type of CHD. Is TOF 50% Brain abscess in CHD are generally solitary 3/18/2014 5 Brain Abscess
Slide 6 - 3. Penetrating trauma : A. Penetrating trauma are seen occur soon or after years from trauma. Contaminated bone fragments and debris provide anidus for infection Bullet cause brain abscess or not ? 3/18/2014 6 Brain Abscess
Slide 7 - B. Basal skull fracture with CSF leak and meningitis cause post traumatic abscess Brain abscess from penetrating trauma is preventable or not? 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 7
Slide 8 - 4.Previous craniotomy Because of : A. Introduce of M.O.at time of surgery B. Spread of M.O. intracranialy through the wound C. Bone flap infection 5. Immune compromised person 3/18/2014 8 Brain Abscess
Slide 9 - MICROBIOLOGY Otogenic and dental infection caused by anaerobic organism Sinusitis caused by staph aureus, aerobic streptococci CHD caused by strep. SPP. In immune deficiency caused by fungus In AIDS by toxoplasma gondi Incidence of –ve culture is 25-30% 3/18/2014 9 Brain Abscess
Slide 10 - PATHOGENESIS AND HISTOPATHOLOGY OF BRAIN ABSCESS Preceding antibody formation there is an area of necrosis which is seeded by bacteria Brain abscess formation are 4 stages 1.stage I:early cerebritis (day 1 to day 3) characterized by necrotic tissue ,local inflammatory response, marked edema This stage there is no demarcation between the lesion and surrounding brain 3/18/2014 10 Brain Abscess
Slide 11 - 2.stage two (late cerebritis)(day 4-10): characterized by : pus , maximum edema 3.stage three (early encapsulation)(day10—13) Capsule limits spread of infection Capsule develops slowly in medial wall of abscess? 4.Stage four: late capsule stage ( day 14 and on ) 3/18/2014 11 Brain Abscess
Slide 12 - 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 12
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Slide 15 - 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 15
Slide 16 - 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 16
Slide 17 - Clinical presentation : Occur in majorities in the first 2 decades of life Males more affected ( cause is unknown ) adults depend on immune status Infants : increase in head circumference , bulging fontanel , separation of cranial sutures , vomiting , irritability , seizures Signs of IICP and FND : Edema Cerebral tissue destruction 3/18/2014 17 Brain Abscess
Slide 18 - Symptoms : 1. Head ache ( 90 %) 2. Change in conscious level ( 60 %) 3. FND ( 60 %) Parietal lobe : hemiparesis Temporal lobe : dysphasia Cerebellar : ataxia and nystagmus 4.Fever (more than 50 %) 5. Nausea and vomiting ( 50 %) 6. Seizure ( 50 %) 7.Papilledema and meningismus 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 18
Slide 19 - Laboratory findings WBC : normal or mild increase ESR : increase in 90% CSF : not specific Opening pressure Protein Glucose Culture 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 19
Slide 20 - 4. radiological characteristic of brain abscess Brain CTS with contrast ring enhancement Multi loculation Multiplicity Finding of gas 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 20
Slide 21 - MRI : T1 : necrotic center ( hypointence) Capsule ( hyperintence) Edema ( hypointence) T2 : necrotic center ( hyperintence) Capsule ( hypointence) Edema ( hyperintence 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 21
Slide 22 - Management Antibiotic therapy : Antibiotic is mandatory and should given Antibiotics depends on C/S Imperial treatment depend on the etiology Sinusitis : ( penicillin + metronidazole ) Otitis : ( penicillin + metronidazole + 3rd generation cephalosporin) Metastatic abscess :(metronidazole + 3rd generation cephalosporin) Post traumatic abscess ( vancomycin) 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 22
Slide 23 - Advantage of antibiotic therapy Small size Deep seated Multiple 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 23
Slide 24 - 2. Aspiration : Advantages : Confirm diagnosis Remove of purulent material Provide environment for antibiotics to work Provide immediate relief of IICP Stereotactic guided aspiration 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 24
Slide 25 - 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 25
Slide 26 - 3.Excision of brain abscess Advantages Traumatic abscess ( contain foreign body and bone fragment ) Fungal abscess Gas containing abscess Disadvantages 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 26
Slide 27 - Follow up CT weekly during antibiotic therapy And then monthly CT 2-3 week decrease size of abscess 3-4 months complete resolution of abscess 6-9 months no residual contrast enhancement 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 27
Slide 28 - Outcome of abscess : Mortality influenced by ( herniation , rupture of abscess to the ventricle , clinical course of the patient, type of abscess, neurological state of patient at time of diagnosis) 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 28
Slide 29 - Long term morbidity : ( seizure , FND, Cognitive dysfunction) Recurrence: ( 5-10%) causes ( inadequate antibiotic therapy, incorrect choice of AB, presence of foreign body , failure to eradicate source of the abscess) 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 29
Slide 30 - 3/18/2014 Brain Abscess 30 Thank you