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Published on : Mar 14, 2014
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Slide 2 - INTRODUCTION ACS has sometimes been used with the term intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) interchangeably. IAH exists when IAP exceeds a measured numeric parameter. This parameter has generally been set at between 20 and 25mmHg. ACS exists when IAH is accompanied by manifestations of organ dysfunction, with reversal of these pathophysiologic changes upon abdominal decompression
Slide 3 - INTRODUCTION Kron et al , in 1984, reported the first series in which IAP was measured and used as a criterion for abdominal decompression, followed by improvement in organ function. Kron et al were the first to use the phrase “abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)”.
Slide 4 - PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The adverse physiologic effects of IAH impact multiple organ systems. These include: pulmonary cardiovascular renal splanchnic musculoskeletal/integumentary (abdominal wall) central nervous system
Slide 5 - Pulmonary dysfunction Elevated IAP has a direct effect on pulmonary function. Pulmonary compliance suffers with resultant progressive reduction in total lung capacity, functional residual capacity and residual volume. These changes have been demonstrated with IAP above 15mmHg.
Slide 6 - Pulmonary dysfunction Respiratory failure secondary to hypoventilation results from progressive elevation in IAP. Ultimately, pulmonary organ dysfunction is manifest by hypoxia, hypercapnia and increasing ventilatory pressure
Slide 7 - Cardiovascular dysfunction Elevated IAP is consistently correlated with reduction in cardiac output. This has been demonstrated with IAP above 20mmHg Reduction in cardiac output is a result of decreased cardiac venous return from direct compression of the inferior vena cava and portal vein.
Slide 8 - Cardiovascular dysfunction Increased intrapleural pressures resulting from transmitted intra-abdominal forces produce elevations in measured hemodynamic parameters. including central venous pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP). Significant hemodynamic changes have been demonstrated with IAP above 20 mmHg.
Slide 9 - Renal dysfunction Graded elevations in IAP are associated with incremental reductions in measured renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. This results in a decline in urine output, beginning with oliguria at IAP of 15-20 mmHg and progressing to anuria at IAP above 30 mmHg. The mechanism by which renal function is compromised by elevated IAP is multifactorial.
Slide 10 - Renal dysfunction The adverse renal physiology associated with IAH is pre-renal and renal. Prerenal derangements result from altered cardiovascular function and reduction in cardiac output with decreased renal perfusion. Renal parenchymal compression produces alterations in renal blood flow secondary to elevated renal vascular resistance. This occurs by compression of renal arterioles and veins.
Slide 11 - Portosystemic visceral dysfunction Impaired liver and gut perfusion have also been demonstrated with elevation in IAP. Severe progressive reduction in mesenteric blood flow has been shown with graded elevation in IAP from approximately 70% of baseline at 20 mmHg, to 30% at 40 mmHg.
Slide 12 - Portosystemic visceral dysfunction Intestinal mucosal perfusion as measured by laser flow probe has been shown to be impaired at IAP above 10 mmHg. Metabolic changes that result from impaired intestinal mucosal perfusion have been shown by tonometry measurements that demonstrate worsening acidosis in mucosal cells with increasing IAH.
Slide 13 - Portosystemic visceral dysfunction Similarly, measured abnormalities in intestinal oxygenation have been shown with elevations of IAP above 15mmHg. Impairment in bowel tissue oxygenation occurs without corresponding reductions in subcutaneous tissue oxygenation, indicating the selective effect of IAP on organ perfusion.
Slide 14 - Portosystemic visceral dysfunction Impaired bowel perfusion has been linked to abnormalities in normal physiologic gut mucosal barrier function, resulting in a permissive effect on bacterial translocation. This may contribute to later septic complications associated with organ dysfunction and failure.
Slide 15 - Portosystemic visceral dysfunction Adverse effects of IAP on hepatic arterial, portal, and microcirculatory blood flow have also been shown with pressures above 20mmHg. A progressive decline in perfusion through these vessels occurs as IAP increases, despite cardiac output and systemic blood pressure being maintained at normal levels.
Slide 16 - Portosystemic visceral dysfunction Splanchnic vascular resistance is a major determinant in the regulation of hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flow. Elevated IAP can become the main factor in establishing mesenteric vascular resistance and ultimately abdominal organ perfusion
Slide 17 - Portosystemic visceral dysfunction Although technically not a component of the abdominal cavity itself, the abdominal wall is also adversely impacted by elevations in IAP. Significant abnormalities in rectus muscle blood flow have been documented with progressive elevations in IAP. Clinically, this derangement is manifest by complications in abdominal wound healing, including fascial dehiscence, and surgical site infection
Slide 18 - Central nervous system dysfunction Elevations in intracranial pressure (ICP) have been shown in both animal and human models with elevated IAP. These pressure derangements have been shown to be independent of cardiopulmonary function and appear to be primarily related to elevations in central venous and pleural pressures.
Slide 19 - Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure Direct measurement of IAP by means of an intra-peritoneal catheter Bedside measurement of IAP has been accomplished by transduction of pressures from indwelling femoral vein, rectal, gastric, and urinary bladder catheters
Slide 20 - MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE In 1984 Kron et al reported a method by which to measure IAP at the bedside with the use of an indwelling Foley catheter Sterile saline (50-100cm3) is injected into the empty bladder through the indwelling Foley catheter. The sterile tubing of the urinary drainage bag is cross-clamped just distal to the culture aspiration port.
Slide 21 - MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE The end of the drainage bag tubing is connected to the Foley catheter. The clamp is released just enough to allow the tubing proximal to the clamp to flow fluid from the bladder, then reapplied. A 16-gauge needle is then used to Y-connect a manometer or pressure transducer through the culture aspiration port of the tubing of the drainage bag. Finally, the top of the symphysis pubic bone is used as the zero point with the patient supine
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Slide 26 - CLINICAL PRESENTATION Incidence The exact incidence of ACS is yet to be established, but it is clearly increased in certain population groups. .
Slide 27 - Incidence In one prospective series of 145 patients who were identified as being at risk for development of the ACS the incidence was reported as 14%. The incidence following primary closure after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported in one series as 4%.
Slide 28 - Risk factors for ACS Severe penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm Retroperitoneal hemorrhage Pneumoperitoneum Neoplasm Pancreatitis Massive ascites Liver transplantation Abdominal wall burn eschar
Slide 29 - Diagnosis Clinical manifestations of organ dysfunction include respiratory failure that is characterized by impaired pulmonary compliance, resulting in elevated airway pressures with progressive hypoxia and hypercapnia. Some authors report pulmonary dysfunction as the earliest manifestation of ACS.
Slide 30 - Diagnosis Hemodynamic indicators include elevated heart rate, hypotension, normal or elevated PAWP and central venous pressure, reduced cardiac output and elevated systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance.
Slide 31 - Diagnosis Impairment in renal function is manifest by oliguria progressing to anuria with resultant azotemia. Renal insufficiency as a result of IAH is only partly reversible by fluid resuscitation..
Slide 32 - Diagnosis Elevated IAP is an additional clinical manifestation of ACS. Clinical confirmation of IAH requires bedside measurements indicative of IAP. Experimental and clinical data indicate that IAH is present above an IAP of 20 mmHg.
Slide 33 - Prevention The earliest and potentially most effective means of addressing this disorder is by recognition of patients who are at risk and pre-emptive interventions designed to minimize the chances for development of IAH.
Slide 34 - Prevention Various types of mesh closures of the abdominal wall and other alternative means of abdominal content coverage have been described. There is evidence that ACS may be preventable by use of absorbable mesh in high-risk injured patients undergoing laparotomy.
Slide 35 - Prevention Achieving optimal resuscitation rather than over-resuscitation is a potentially preventable complication in intensive care management. Multiple indicators of effective resuscitation have been evaluated. Lactate, base deficit, and gastric mucosal pH appear to be reliable indicators to guide resuscitative interventions.
Slide 36 - Surgical intensive care unit management Identifying patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) at risk for developing ACS with constant surveillance can help lead to prevention. A further strategy is based on recognition of IAH and resultant organ dysfunction.
Slide 37 - Surgical intensive care unit management A four-stage grading scheme base on IAP has been developed, tested, and proposed as a useful ACS management tool
Slide 38 - Surgical intensive care unit management Grade Bladder pressure Recommendation (mmHg) I 10-15 Maintain normovolemia II 16-25 Hypervolemic resuscitation III 26-35 Decompression IV >35 Decompression and re-exploration
Slide 39 - Surgical intensive care unit management Alternative means for surgical decision making are based on clinical indicators of adverse physiology, rather than on a single measured parameter. In the setting of IAH, abdominal decompression has been recommended with any coexisting deterioration in pulmonary, cardiovascular, or renal function.
Slide 40 - Abdominal decompression and wound management A decision to perform the decompression in the ICU is a function of the ventilatory requirements of the patient and the risk associated with transport to the operating room. Although optimal respiratory support may be available in the ICU, this location is generally suboptimal for controlling surgical bleeding.
Slide 41 - Abdominal decompression and wound management Abdominal decompression may itself precipitate adverse physiologic and metabolic events that should be anticipated. These include a large increase in pulmonary compliance with resultant elevation in minute ventilation and respiratory alkalosis unless appropriate ventilatory changes are instituted. 'Washout' of accumulated intra-abdominal products of anaerobic metabolism may result in a bolus of acid and potassium systemically delivered to the heart.
Slide 42 - Abdominal decompression and wound management Under most circumstances following abdominal decompression, immediate primary fascial closure is obviated. Alternative means for coverage of the abdominal contents include skin closure with towel clips or suture, abdominal wall advancement flaps, plastic or silicone coverage, and mesh interposition grafts.
Slide 43 - Abdominal decompression and wound management Patients undergoing decompressive laparotomy are by definition at risk for future redevelopment of ACS, and strong consideration should be given to providing for re-exploration and a staged closure.
Slide 44 - Abdominal decompression and wound management This may include fascial closure after a period of 7–10 days versus placement of split thickness skin grafts on a granulating surface followed by delayed repair of the resulting abdominal wall hernia after several months. Finally, early management of the open abdomen must include recognition for significant fluid losses and fluid replacement
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Slide 47 - OUTCOME The ACS is a condition with a potentially high lethality that must be recognized early and effectively managed in order to optimize outcome. Most deaths associated with ACS are due to sepsis or multiple organ failure.
Slide 48 - OUTCOME Mortality associated with this condition has been reported in 10.6–68% of patients. In one series, nonsurvivors tended toward a more fulminant course, with the majority of deaths occurring within the first 24 h of injury.
Slide 49 - CONCLUSION The abdominal compartment syndrome is defined as intra-abdominal hypertension associated with organ dysfunction. Adverse physiology has been demonstrated in pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, musculoskeletal/integumentary, and central nervous system function.
Slide 50 - CONCLUSION Identification of patients at risk,  early recognition, and  appropriately staged and timed intervention is key to effective management of this condition.
Slide 51 - THANKS