X

Download Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms PowerPoint Presentation


Login   OR  Register
X

Share page



  Preview

               
Home / Health & Wellness / Health & Wellness Presentations / Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms PowerPoint Presentation

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms PowerPoint Presentation

slidesfinder By : slidesfinder

On : Mar 14, 2014

facebook   twitter   google plus  
In : Health & Wellness

Embed :
958
views

1
downloads
Login / Signup - with account for


  • → Make favorite
  • → Flag as inappropriate
  • → Download Presentation
  • → Share Presentation
  • Slide 1 - Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Aurelia Thibonnier-Calero PGY-2 Vascular Surgery
  • Slide 2 - Types of Aneurysms True vs. False (pseudoaneurysm) True: involves all 3 layers of the arterial wall False: presence of blood flow outside of normal layers of arterial wall. Wall of false aneurysm is compose of the compressed, surrounding tissues.
  • Slide 3 - Types of Aneurysms Etiology Degenerative- complex process that involves some degree of calcification, atherosclerotic pathology as well as degeneration by MMPs. Inflammatory- thick inflammatory wall with fibrotic process in retroperitoneum that can encase aorta as well as surrounding structures. Associated with other inflammatory conditions : Takayasu’s, Giant cell arteritis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Behcet’s, Cogans’. Post-dissection- up to 20% of aneurysms are related to previous dissection. Overtime, develops into true aneurysm Traumatic- false aneurysms Developmental Anomalies- persistent sciatic arteries, aberrant right subclavian artery. Infectious- Can be primary or secondary infections. Congenital- Tuberous sclerosis, aortic coarctation, Marfan’s.
  • Slide 4 - Crawford Aneurysm Type
  • Slide 5 - Assessing the AAA patient Normal - aorta 1-2.4cm & iliac 0.6-1.2cm Aneurysm - Aorta >3cm & iliac > 2cm RF for aneurysm Older age, male gender, white race, positive family history, smoking, HTN, hypercholesterolemia, PVD, CAD. Ultrasound used to diagnose and monitor AAA until aneurysm approaches size at which repair considered. Computed Tomography used in preop assessment of AAA.
  • Slide 6 - Ruptured AAA No significant overall change in mortality with open repair from 1991-2006 Overall mortality for ruptured AAA = 90% Mortality rate for patients who arrive at hosptial alive = 40-70% High postop mortality rate due to MI, renal failure, and multi-organ failure Ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemorrhagic shock, lower torso ischemia rEVAR significantly reduces mortality of ruptured AAA patients (31 vs 50%)
  • Slide 7 - Screening for AAA US Preventive Services Task Force Men 65-75 yo who have ever smoked No for or against men 65-75yo who have never smoked Does not recommend screening for women Society of Vascular Surgery, Medicare Screening Men who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their life men and women with a family history of AAA Only screen patients who are candidates for repair.
  • Slide 8 - Choosing between Surgery & Observation Risk for AAA rupture without surgery Operative risk of repair Patient’s life expectancy Personal preferance of patient
  • Slide 9 - 1. Risk of Rupture Size matters: Aneurysm > 5cm 6-16% and > 7cm 33% annual rupture rate Wall stress analysis Saccular aneurysm have higher rate of rupture HTN, COPD, active smoking are independent predictors of rupture (+) family hx tend to rupture Expansion rate
  • Slide 10 - 2. Operative Risk of Repair Mortality after: elective open AAA ~ 5% EVAR 1% 6 independent RF’s for mortality Open repair Creatinine > 1.8, CHF, EKG detected ischemia, Pulmonary dysfunction, older age, female gender. Cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and GI risks with each proceudre.
  • Slide 11 - 3. Patient’s Life Expectancy Very difficult to assess due to patient’s co-morbidities Typical 60yo surviving AAA repair has 13year life-expectacy, 70yo has 10year life-expectancy, and 80 yo has 6 year life-expectancy.
  • Slide 12 - 4. Personal Preference of Patient Fear of AAA vs. Fear of surgery Anecdotal experiences of friends and family Procedures provided in community by interventional specialists and surgeons.
  • Slide 13 - Medical Management of AAA Smoking Cessation- Single most important modifiable risk factor Exercise Therapy- Evidence suggests may benefit small aneurysms Beta Blockers- May decrease the rate of expansion? Important cardiovascular effects thus use advocated. ACE inhibitors- Evidence is mixed, however, implicated in less aneurysm rupture. Doxycycline Antibiotic activiety against chlamydia species Suppresses expression of MMP Statins - associated with reduced aneurysm expansion rates. Decreases MMP-9 in aneurysm wall.
  • Slide 14 - EVAR vs. OPEN EVAR-1 and DREAM Trials Randomized AAA > 5.5 cm to EVAR vs. open repair Lower 30-day mortality for EVAR (1.6% EVAR vs. 4.6% open) Peripop mortality and severe complications 4.7% EVAR & 9.8% open repair (DREAM) Similar all-cause mortality at 2 years Higher rate of secondary interventions in EVAR group Total cost of Tx & 4 years of f/u is significantly increased for EVAR.
  • Slide 15 - Open Repair Transabdominal Approach Previous retroperitoneal surgery Ruptured AAA Exposure of mid/distal portions of visceral vessels or R renal artery R internal or external iliac artery Co-existant abdominal pathology Left-sided vena cava Retroperitoneal Approach Mult. Previous intraperitoneal procedures Abd wall stoma, ectopic/ anomaly of kidney Inflammatory aneurysm Proximal aortic access, endarterectomy of viceral/renal arteries needed Obese patients Fewer GI complications
  • Slide 16 - ppt slide no 16 content not found
  • Slide 17 - Open Repair-Complications Cardiac Pulmonary Renal Lower Extremity Ischemia Spinal Cord Ischemia Incisional Hernia 14.2% ventral hernia, 9.7% SBO Graft Infection
  • Slide 18 - Open Repair Complications:Colon Ischemia Collaterals from SMA, IMA, internal iliac artery, and profunda femoris supply sigmoid colon Mortality 40-65%, full-thickness necrosis 80-100% Occurs in 0.6-3% of elective and 7-27% of ruptured AAA (much more common endoscopically than clinically) Si/Sx: persistent acidosis & shock, increased WBCs and lactate levels, fluid sequestration, bloody bowel movements. TX: Ischemia limited to mucosa/submucosa- npo, IVF, IV abx Transmural ischemia- bowel resection, fecal diversion, creation of ostomy, washout of abdomen, IV abx.
  • Slide 19 - Open Repair- Concomitant Pathology Treat the most life-threatening process first Avoid simultaneous operations that increase the risk for prosthetic graft infection If secondary procedure can be staged without increased risk - do aneurysm repair first Clean procedures (ie:nephrectomy, oophrectomy) can be performed simultaneously with open AAA repair GI procedures should not occur at same time as open repair Abort surgery if metastatic disease or abscesses which increase risk for graft infection discovered.
  • Slide 20 - Inflammatory AAA Perianeurysmal fibrosis & inflammation 5% of AAA Treatment of AAA resolves the periaortic inflammation in 53% (open & EVAR) Duodenum, left renal vein, and ureters often involved in inflammation. PreOp ureteral stent placement recommended.
  • Slide 21 - Infected AAA 0.65% of AAA Can be primary or secondary infection Potential causes of infection: Continguous spread of local infxn, septic embolization from distal site, bacteremia. In the past syphilis and steptococcal species was common: Now: staph and salmonella. With HIV and wide-spread abx use- can be caused by any bacterial or fungal infection Dx: fever, abdominal/back pain, high ESR, bacteremia.
  • Slide 22 - EVAR
  • Slide 23 - Types of Endoleak
  • Slide 24 - Types of Endoleak Type I Usually identified and treated @ time of stent graft implantation Must be treated if found on post-op imaging Associated with high likelihood of AAA rupture Bridge with short aortic cuff, Palmaz stent Type II 10-20% of post-op CT scan show Type II leak 80% resolve spontaneously at 6 months Indication to treat: persistent leak, aneurysm growth Transcatheter tx (coil embolization) Type III 0-1.5% incidence Strong predictor of rupture Tx: re-establish continuity by additional component to bridge gap or cover hole. Type IV Majority resolve within one month of stent graft implantation
  • Slide 25 - EVAR Complications:EuroSTAR Registry Annual Incidence of Complication (per 1,000 patients) From Van Marrewijk CJ, Leurs LJ, Valabhaneni SR, et al. Risk-adjusted outcome analysis of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. J Endovasc Ther. 2005; 12; 417-429
  • Slide 26 - EVAR complications Stent-graft infection Net infection rate of 0.43% Pelvic ischemia Internal iliac occlusion during EVAR Si/sx: buttock claudication (most common 16-50%), buttock necrosis, colon necrosis, spinal ischemia, lumbosacral plexus ischemia, ED (15-17%). Ischemic colitis < 2%
  • Slide 27 - Long-Term Outcome of Open or Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm De Bruin et al. DREAM study group The New England Journal of Medicine May 2010
  • Slide 28 - Introduction Previous studies have shown initial survival benefit in patients undergoing EVAR vs. Open repair of AAA Concern that EVAR is not as durable as AAA and is associated with greater risk of rupture and secondary interventions. Goal: Analyze results of Dutch Randomized Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (DREAM) study to provide long-term data comparing open repair vs. EVAR
  • Slide 29 - Methods Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing open repair vs. EVAR in 351 patients AAA > 5cm Patients had to be candidates for both techniques of repair Exclusion Criteria: Ruptured or inflammatory aneurysms, anatomical variations, connective-tissue diseases, hx of organ transplant or life-expectancy < 2 years. F/U visits at 30 days, 6/12/18/24months after procedure After first 2 years, pts received questionnaires every 6 months.
  • Slide 30 - Methods EVAR patient received CT scan annually All patients were called at 5 years and invited for f/u CT scan. Data acquisition stopped Feb 2009 Primary outcome was rate of death from any cause & reintervention Survival calculated on intention-to-treat basis.
  • Slide 31 - Results November 2000-December 2003 178 patients Open repair vs. 173 EVAR Mean age 7yo, 91% male, 43.9% concomittant cardiac disease. 6 pts did not undergo aneurysm repair 4 declined tx, 1 died from rupture, 1 died from PNA. 8 in hosptial deaths open vs. 2 EVAR Mean f/u 6.4 years 25% of open patient underwent CT scan at 5 years, 100% of EVAR
  • Slide 32 - Results @ 6 years post-op: Survival rate: 69.9% open, 68.9% EVAR Freedom from reintervention: 81.9% open vs. 70.4% EVAR Analysis of causes of death EVAR- mostly miscellaneous rather than CV Reintervention Open repair- majority done for hernia repair EVAR- endoleak, endograft migration
  • Slide 33 - Discussion “No significant difference between endovascular repair and open repair in rate of overall survival at a median of 6.4 years.” Previously DREAM and EVAR-1 trials demonstrated early (2years) survival advantage for EVAR group. Significantly higher rate of reinterventions in EVAR group than open group Study limited by difference in f/u between the open and endovascular group.
  • Slide 34 - Conclusion At 6 years, Open repair and EVAR have similar rates of suvival EVAR has a greater rate of reintervention
  • Slide 35 - Total Percutaneous Access for Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair (“Preclose” technique) Lee WA, Brown MP, Nelson PR, Huber TS. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2007 June; 45(6):1095-101 University of Florida, Gainesville
  • Slide 36 - large single institutional experience with the method and outcomes of a variation of the Preclose technique using the 6F Perclose Proglide (Abbott Vascular) device during endovascular aortic repairs. Retrospective review of patient who underwent EVAR/TEVAR from Oct 03-Aug06 183 perc femoral access with 12-24F Perclose technique with Proglide device compared to 154 patients with open surgical exposure of femoral arteries Anesthia used for Preclose vs. open: general, 49% vs 55%; regional, 45% vs 44%; and local, 5% vs 1% (P = .10). Percutaneous group broken down into group of smaller 12-16F and group of larger 18-24F sheaths. Data points: perioperative outcomes, procedure times, operating room usage costs, and technical success (in-hospital or 30-day). F/U: CT scan at 1 month post-op The list price for each Perclose Proglide device is (US) $295. Dilator set $170.44 cost of the operating room is (US) $3935 for the first 60 minutes (not prorated for shorter periods) and then $50/min thereafter.
  • Slide 37 - Results 137 EVAR, 118 TEVAR, 7 iliac repairs performed 381 femoral arteries accessed with 12-24F sheaths 279 were with 559 Proglide devices using Preclose technique in 183 patients 4 femoral artereries required 1 device (1.4%) -all 12F sheaths 270 arteries (96.8%) required 2 devices 5 arteries (1.8%) required 3 devices 63% of sheaths were > 18F Overall technical success of Preclose technique was 94.3% 99% for smaller sheaths and 91% for larger sheaths.
  • Slide 38 - Results 16 complications 13 open repairs of femoral arteries 2 emergent placement of covered stent for severe retroperitoneal hemorrhage. 1 necrotizing arteritis with mycotic pseudoaneurysm requiring replacement of femoral artery with autogenous femoral vein. All cause mortality 2.2% Access mortality 0%
  • Slide 39 - Results Surgical Group- 154 endovascular repairs 108 EVAR and 46 TEVAR 258 femoral exposures Technical success rate 93.8% 16 complications 10 endarterectomies with patch angioplasty 3 wound infections 2 infected seromas requiring I&D 1 severe arteritis requiring debridement and replacement of CFA with autogenous femoral vein. All cause mortality 1.3% 0% access-related mortality
  • Slide 40 - Results Significantly lower OR time for Preclose group: EVAR: 115 vs 128 min TEVAR: 80 vs 112 min Cost: OR + Proglide vs. OR+ Surgery EVAR: $7881 vs $7351 TEVAR: $5679 vs $6556
  • Slide 41 - Discussion Percutaneous Access Shorter procedure time Fewer wound complications Increased patient comfort Limited by size of delivery system. In this study: Smaller sheaths had higher technical success All complications occurred intra-op No access-related mortality Accessing anterior aspect of mid-common femoral artery is crucial in preventing hemorrhagic complications.
  • Slide 42 - Discussion Contraindications to Preclose: Coagulopathy is contra-indication to use of this device due to inability to control “needle-hole bleeding” Severe calcifications Groin scarring Obesity Previous use of percutaneous closure devices. High (suprainguinal ligament) femoral bifurcation Need for frequent introducer sheath removals and insertions Proximal iliac occlusive disease Small iliofemoral arteries relative to profile of device being used
  • Slide 43 - Conclusion Prospective, randomized study is needed to truly validate this technique Percutaneous EVAR is safe and effective Long-term data is needed to evaluate effect on femoral artery.
  • Slide 44 - The End
Dieting Free PowerPoint Template

Dieting

Views : 391

Virtual Identity Free PowerPoint Template

Virtual Identity

Views : 426

DNA Free PowerPoint Template

DNA

Views : 463

Obesity Free PowerPoint Template

Obesity

Views : 745

Credit Debit Card Free PowerPoint Template

Credit Debit Card

Views : 412

Easter Eggs Free PowerPoint Template

Easter Eggs

Views : 618

Question Free PowerPoint Template

Question

Views : 510

Smoking Free PowerPoint Template

Smoking

Views : 450

Statistics and Graph Free PowerPoint Template

Statistics and Graph

Views : 645

Social Media Words Free PowerPoint Template

Social Media Words

Views : 408

Email Symbol Free PowerPoint Template

Email Symbol

Views : 456

Success Achievement Free PowerPoint Template

Success Achievement

Views : 460

Whilte Tulip Free PowerPoint Template

Whilte Tulip

Views : 490

Lab Equipment Free PowerPoint Template

Lab Equipment

Views : 451

Health Tips Free PowerPoint Template

Health Tips

Views : 1025

Back to School Free PowerPoint Template

Back to School

Views : 493

Coffee Free PowerPoint Template

Coffee

Views : 818

Guitar Free PowerPoint Template

Guitar

Views : 884

Yoga Free PowerPoint Template

Yoga

Views : 2341

Yoga Meditation Free PowerPoint Template

Yoga Meditation

Views : 741

Description : Available Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms powerpoint presentation for free download which is uploaded by honey an active user in belonging ppt presentation Health & Wellness category.

Tags : Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

Shortcode : Get Shareable link