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Slide 1 - A Balanced Diet
Slide 2 - Objectives: State what is meant by balanced diet Describe a balanced diet Describe the effects of malnutrition in relation to starvation, coronary artery disease, constipation, and obesity Describe the deficiency symptoms for vitamin C & D, Iron, Calcium
Slide 3 - A balanced diet: contains carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, mineral salts and fiber in the correct proportions
Slide 4 - Carbohydrates Gives you the energy you need to move and grow Too much = gain weight Too little = feel tired
Slide 5 - Proteins Are essential for growth and repair Too much = gain weight & might make a lot of urine Too little = will not grow properly & wounds will not heal
Slide 6 - Fats Contain fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E & K) Too little = will not get all the vitamins you need, may not have enough insulation Too much = gain weight
Slide 7 - Vitamins Keep you healthy A B1, B2 etc up to B12 C * D * E
Slide 8 - What if I don’t get enough… Vitamin C Anemia Bleeding gums; Gingivitis Decreased ability to fight infection; wound-healing rate Dry and splitting hair Easy bruising Nosebleeds Possible weight gain because of slowed metabolism Rough, dry, scaly skin Swollen and painful joints Weakened tooth enamel SEVERE deficiency can lead to scurvy causes general weakness, anemia, gum disease, and skin hemorrhages.
Slide 9 - What if I don’t get enough… Vitamin D Severe deficiency can lead to Ricket’s which can cause softening and weakening of the bones Bone pain/tenderness Dental deformities Impaired growth Increased bone fractures Muscle cramps Short stature (adults less than 5 feet tall) Skeletal deformities
Slide 10 - Minerals Calcium*: for teeth, bones, muscles & nerves, Iron*: to make the hemoglobin in your blood Iodine: to control how fast your body works Sodium, Potassium and Chlorine: needed by muscles and nerves
Slide 11 - What if I don’t get enough… Iron most common nutritional deficiency and the leading cause of anemia in the United States Symptoms Feeling tired and weak Decreased work and school performance Slow cognitive and social development during childhood Difficulty maintaining body temperature Decreased immune function, which increases susceptibility to infection Glossitis (an inflamed tongue)
Slide 12 - What if I don’t get enough… Calcium Can weaken bones, causing them to become brittle Osteoporosis thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density over time. Symptoms don’t appear until LATE in disease!! Bone pain or tenderness Fractures with little or no trauma Loss of height (as much as 6 inches) over time Low back pain due to fractures of the spinal bones Neck pain due to fractures of the spinal bones Stooped posture or kyphosis, also called a "dowager's hump"
Slide 13 - Fiber Not digested If you do not eat fiber your bowels will not work properly.
Slide 14 - Effects of Malnutrition Don't expect to remain healthy if you do not have a balanced diet. It's hard to imagine, but many Americans are malnourished. An estimated 70% of Americans do not receive sufficient nutrients, according to Daryn Peterson, Ph.D. HMD.
Slide 15 - Malnutrition Occurs when a diet provides nutrients in sub-optimal amounts. Causes Unbalanced diet Even the lack of one vitamin can lead to malnutrition Effects fatigue dizziness weight loss you may have no symptoms *Malnutrition can be so severe that the damage done to the body is permanent, even though you survive.
Slide 16 - Starvation Form of malnutrition Occurs when a person fails to consume or absorb an adequate amount of nutrients and calories Effects Impaired brain function Brittle nails, splitting or breaking hair, and dry skin Low blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythms Fatigue and weakness Weakened immune system Prevention: Balanced diet
Slide 17 - Obesity Being obese is NOT about what you weigh, it's about having too much fat in your body. One-third of adults ages 20 and older are considered obese, which is defined as having a body mass index greater than 30. Causes of Obesity Imbalance of calories taken in versus calories burned through physical activity Lifestyle habits, eating behaviors and stress. Too little sleep (affects hormones that increase appetite) Effects Increased risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis and some cancers Prevention: balanced diet and exercise
Slide 18 - Heart Disease Coronary artery disease: most common type of heart disease. Leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol Heart muscle can't get the blood or oxygen it needs. This can lead to heart attack. Prevention: Balanced diet Eating lots of fiber Exercise
Slide 19 - Constipation 3 or fewer bowel movements/week Causes Poor diet, lack of fluids, little exercise, medications Occasionally, long-term constipation develops into fecal impaction (a blocked colon) Causes pain and vomiting, & may require emergency treatment or hospitalization. Fairly common complication of long-term constipation in the elderly and bedridden Prevention Eating more fruits, vegetables and grains = fiber Drinking plenty of water and other liquids Exercise