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A Anxiety Disorders PowerPoint Presentation

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On : Jul 26, 2014

In : Health & Wellness

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  • Slide 1 - Anxiety Disorders
  • Slide 2 - Different aspects of Anxiety Phenomenological Affective: dread, tension, worry Cognitive: expectations of an inability to cope, impaired cognitive ability Behavioural Impaired motor functioning and avoidance Physiological increased blood pressure, heart rate, breathing; disruptions in GI functioning and dizziness
  • Slide 3 - Types of Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Phobias Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Slide 4 - Panic Disorder Panic Attack Cued (situationally bound) v.s. Uncued (unexpected) panic attacks Panic Disorder
  • Slide 5 - Panic Disorder: Agoraphobia Fear of being in a situation where having a panic attack would be dangerous or where escape would be impossible
  • Slide 6 - Generalized Anxiety Disorder Chronic state of diffuse anxiety
  • Slide 7 - Phobias Phobias involve intense, persistent fear of something that poses no real threat avoidance of the feared object/situation Specific Phobia fear of circumscribed objects or situations
  • Slide 8 - Phobias Algophobia -pain Astraphobia -thunderstorms Pathophobia -disease Monophobia -being alone Mysophobia -contamination Nyctophobia -darkness Ochlophobia -crowds
  • Slide 9 - Phobias: Social Phobia Fear of social embarrassment or humiliation public speaking eating in public using public bathrooms Impact on self confidence and restricts social activity
  • Slide 10 - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Intense fear and helplessness in response to events involving actual or threatened death or serious injury. Acute Stress Disorder symptoms last for 2 days - 4 weeks Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms last at least 1 month
  • Slide 11 - Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsession unwanted thought or image that keeps intruding into awareness Compulsion an action that a person feels compelled to repeat again and again despite a lack of desire to do so
  • Slide 12 - The Psychodynamic Approach to Anxiety Anxiety is a signal that the ego is having a hard time mediating between reality, id and superego. Different anxiety disorders are the result of different defense mechanisms used to cope.
  • Slide 13 - The Psychodynamic Approach to Anxiety: Attachment Theories Bowlby disturbances in parent-child bond leads to “anxious attachment” and a vulnerability to anxiety disorders later in life
  • Slide 14 - The Behavioural Approach to Anxiety Mowrer (1948) Avoidance learning 1) classical (respondent) conditioning 2) negative reinforcement
  • Slide 15 - The Behavioural Approach to Anxiety Barlow (1988) Anxiety Sensitivity or “Fear of Fear”
  • Slide 16 - The Behavioural Approach to Anxiety Treatment: systematic desensitization exposure flooding
  • Slide 17 - The Biological Approach to Anxiety Genetic Component family and twin studies suggest a genetic component in most anxiety disorders panic disorder shows the strongest genetic component and generalized anxiety disorder the least
  • Slide 18 - The Biological Approach to Anxiety “Suffocation false alarm hypothesis” of panic disorder serotonin and basal ganglia abnormalities in OCD hormonal theory of PTSD State-dependent learning
  • Slide 19 - The Cognitive Approach to Anxiety Individuals misperceive and misinterpret internal and external stimuli
  • Slide 20 - Cognitive Appraisal Stimulus--->Appraisal---> Response evaluation of stimulus based on memories, beliefs, and expectations
  • Slide 21 - Information Processing Schema how we understand the information we take in from the environment Selective Attention what information we take in
  • Slide 22 - Cognitive Approach to Panic Disorder Catastrophic interpretations of bodily sensations Feeling of control Some Problems: panic attacks during sleep why do catastrophic interpretations develop
  • Slide 23 - Anxiety and Selective Attention
  • Slide 24 - Bodybags Nam Firefight Landmine Explosion Airlift
  • Slide 25 - Several cognitive models of anxiety suggest that attentional biases to threat cues cause and maintain anxiety disorders. Empirical findings: Lavy and van den Hout (1993), individuals with spider phobia show an attentional bias to spiders Ehlers and Breuer (1995), individuals with panic disorder show an attentional bias towards unpleasant body cues
  • Slide 26 - Attentional bias in Social Phobia
  • Slide 27 - Pair of Pictures: 500ms Fixation Cross: 1000ms F / E judgement Temporal sequence of events for each trial J + E Probe Display: until response
  • Slide 28 - Participants Two kinds of participants (high and low social anxiety) Participants were university students selected for high and low social anxiety (FNE, also measured trait anxiety)
  • Slide 29 - Experimental Conditions Two kinds of experimental conditions (threat and no threat) Threat: Half of the participants were told the experiment was an assessment of social skills and public speaking ability.
  • Slide 30 - Picture Displays Three kinds of picture displays (positive, negative and neutral face, each paired with a household object)
  • Slide 31 - Experimental Design Two kinds of participants (high and low social anxiety) Two kinds of experimental conditions (threat and no threat) Three kinds of faces (negative, neutral and positive) each displayed with a household object (clocks, chairs etc.)
  • Slide 32 - Bias Score Bias Score = RT to identify probe when the face and probe are in opposite positions RT to identify probe when the face and probe are in the same position -
  • Slide 33 - Pair of Pictures: 500ms Fixation Cross: 1000ms F / E judgement Temporal sequence of events for each trial J + E Probe Display: until response
  • Slide 34 - Results In the social threat condition, the high socially anxious participants avoided negative and positive faces, whereas the low socially anxious participants showed no bias.
  • Slide 35 - Discussion of Results Lavy and van den Hout (1993) found that spider phobics show an attentional bias towards pictures of spiders. Why are spider phobics and social phobics different?
  • Slide 36 - Discussion of Results How might this attentional bias (to avoid emotionally expressive faces) contribute to the maintenance of social phobia?
  • Slide 37 - Mansell, et al. (1999). Social anxiety and attention away from emotional faces. Cognition and Emotion, 13(6), 673-690.
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